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 Showing 1-20 of 34 Articles
Case Report/Case Series 
Georges Naasan, MD; Sarosh R. Irani, MRCP, DPhil; Brianne M. Bettcher, PhD; Michael D. Geschwind, MD, PhD; Jeffrey M. Gelfand, MD, MAS

Importance  Voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody (VGKCc-Ab) encephalitis is an immunotherapy-responsive syndrome usually associated with causative antibodies that target the leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein. Although it is expressed throughout the brain, LGI1 is not known to be expressed in cardiac tissue. We describe a novel ...

Christopher M. Gomez, MD, PhD; Soma Das, PhD
Clinical exome sequencing has arrived and likely is here to stay for the foreseeable future as a key component of routine diagnostic evaluations. When applied to a condition as genetically heterogeneous as the ataxias, it is likely to prove fruitful to yield a molecular diagnosis. The article by Fogel et ...
Original Investigation 
Olga Marshall, MS; Hanzhang Lu, PhD; Jean-Christophe Brisset, PhD; Feng Xu, PhD; Peiying Liu, PhD; Joseph Herbert, MD; Robert I. Grossman, MD; Yulin Ge, MD

Importance  Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an inherent indicator of the dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles for a vasomotor stimulus for maintaining a spontaneous and instant increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in response to neural activation. The integrity of this mechanism is essential to preserving healthy neurovascular ...

Original Investigation 
Brent L. Fogel, MD, PhD; Hane Lee, PhD; Joshua L. Deignan, PhD; Samuel P. Strom, PhD; Sibel Kantarci, PhD; Xizhe Wang, BS; Fabiola Quintero-Rivera, MD; Eric Vilain, MD, PhD; Wayne W. Grody, MD, PhD; Susan Perlman, MD; Daniel H. Geschwind, MD, PhD; Stanley F. Nelson, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Cerebellar ataxias are a diverse collection of neurologic disorders with causes ranging from common acquired etiologies to rare genetic conditions. Numerous genetic disorders have been associated with chronic progressive ataxia and this consequently presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician regarding how to approach and prioritize ...

Courtney Lane-Donovan, SB; Joachim Herz, MD
More than 20 years ago, a polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene was identified as the primary risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD).1 Individuals carrying the ε4 isoform of apoE (apoE4) are at significantly greater risk for AD compared with apoE3 carriers, whereas the apoE2 allele is associated ...
Original Investigation 
Juan M. Pascual, MD, PhD; Peiying Liu, PhD; Deng Mao, BS; Dorothy I. Kelly, MA; Ana Hernandez, MS; Min Sheng, PhD; Levi B. Good, PhD; Qian Ma, MD, PhD; Isaac Marin-Valencia, MD, MS; Xuchen Zhang, MD; Jason Y. Park, MD, PhD; Linda S. Hynan, PhD; Peter Stavinoha, PhD; Charles R. Roe, MD; Hanzhang Lu, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Disorders of brain metabolism are multiform in their mechanisms and manifestations, many of which remain insufficiently understood and are thus similarly treated. Glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D) is commonly associated with seizures and with electrographic spike-waves. The G1D syndrome has long been attributed to energy ...

Original Investigation 
Dominic Holland, PhD; Linda Chang, MD; Thomas M. Ernst, PhD; Megan Curran; Steven D. Buchthal, PhD; Daniel Alicata, MD; Jon Skranes, MD; Heather Johansen; Antonette Hernandez; Robyn Yamakawa; Joshua M. Kuperman, PhD; Anders M. Dale, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Objective  To assess structural growth trajectories and ...

Original Investigation  FREE
Angel C. Y. Mak, PhD; Clive R. Pullinger, PhD; Ling Fung Tang, PhD; Jinny S. Wong, BS; Rahul C. Deo, MD, PhD; Jean-Marc Schwarz, PhD; Alejandro Gugliucci, MD, PhD; Irina Movsesyan, BS; Brian Y. Ishida, PhD; Catherine Chu, BS; Annie Poon, BS; Phillip Kim, MD; Eveline O. Stock, MD; Ernst J. Schaefer, MD; Bela F. Asztalos, PhD; Joseph M. Castellano, PhD; Tony Wyss-Coray, PhD; Jacque L. Duncan, MD; Bruce L. Miller, MD; John P. Kane, MD, PhD; Pui-Yan Kwok, MD, PhD; Mary J. Malloy, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The identification of a patient with a rare form of severe dysbetalipoproteinemia allowed the study of the consequences of total absence of apolipoprotein E (apoE).

Objectives  To discover the molecular basis of this rare disorder and to determine the effects of complete absence of apoE ...

David S. Warner, MD; Michael L. James, MD; Daniel T. Laskowitz, MD; Eelco F. Wijdicks, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Research to improve outcomes from acute central nervous system (CNS) injury has progressed little, although limited examples (eg, induced hypothermia for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest and birth asphyxia and tissue plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke) have proved that it is possible to favorably alter outcome....

Case Report/Case Series 
Mathilde Renaud, MD; Mathieu Anheim, MD, PhD; Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, PhD; Martial Mallaret, MD; Fanny Mochel, MD, PhD; Sascha Vermeer, MD, PhD; Nathalie Drouot, MSc; Jean Pouget, MD; Claire Redin, PhD; Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, MD; Hubertus P. H. Kremer, MD, PhD; Corien C. Verschuuren-Bemelmans, MD; Jean Muller, PhD; Hans Scheffer, PhD; Alexandra Durr, MD, PhD; Christine Tranchant, MD; Michel Koenig, MD, PhD

Importance  ANO10 mutations have been reported to cause a novel form of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA). Our objective was to report 9 ataxic patients carrying 8 novel ANO10 mutations to improve the delineation of this form of ARCA and provide genotype-phenotype correlation.

Observations  The ANO10...

Philip B. Gorelick, MD, MPH
Hypertension affects more than two-thirds of US adults 60 years or older,1 and control is considered by some to be the “crown jewel” of stroke prevention. Despite mounting epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking raised blood pressure (BP) to cognitive decline or dementia, uncertainty remains about the benefit of lowering BP ...
Original Investigation 
Rebecca F. Gottesman, MD, PhD; Andrea L. C. Schneider, MD, PhD; Marilyn Albert, PhD; Alvaro Alonso, MD, PhD; Karen Bandeen-Roche, PhD; Laura Coker, PhD; Josef Coresh, MD, PhD; David Knopman, MD; Melinda C. Power, ScD; Andreea Rawlings, MS; A. Richey Sharrett, MD, DrPH; Lisa M. Wruck, PhD; Thomas H. Mosley, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Hypertension is a treatable potential cause of cognitive decline and dementia, but its greatest influence on cognition may occur in middle age.

Objective  To evaluate the association between midlife (48-67 years of age) hypertension and the 20-year change in cognitive performance.

Design, Setting, and Participants...

Original Investigation 
Kevin S. King, MD; Julia Kozlitina, PhD; Roger N. Rosenberg, MD; Ronald M. Peshock, MD; Roderick W. McColl, PhD; Christine K. Garcia, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Telomere length has been associated with dementia and psychological stress, but its relationship with human brain size is unknown.

Objective  To determine if peripheral blood telomere length is associated with brain volume.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and brain volumes ...

Michael T. Melia, MD; Paul M. Lantos, MD; Paul G. Auwaerter, MD
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi may afflict skin, heart, joints, and the central or peripheral nervous system. This agent of Lyme disease, perhaps because of its varied presentations, is often raised as the cause of headache, fatigue, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. For clinicians who trained in the 20th century when the ...
Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) accounts for less than 1% of those affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) in the world’s population. However, because temporal progression is fairly predictable and the underlying neuropathology and clinical presentation parallel that of late-onset sporadic AD (sAD), it provides an important human model for research ...
Images in Neurology 
Fumiko Furukawa, MD; Satoru Ishibashi, MD, PhD; Nobuo Sanjo, MD, PhD; Hiroshi Yamashita, MD, PhD; Hidehiro Mizusawa, MD, PhD
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) accompanied by type 2 PrPSc and valine homozygosity at codon 129 (VV2) of the prion protein gene (PRNP) is a representative sCJD having the 129VV genotype, which does not show prominent myoclonus or periodic sharp wave complexes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of patients with sCJD ...
Original Investigation 
Jewell B. Thomas, BA; Matthew R. Brier, BS; Randall J. Bateman, MD; Abraham Z. Snyder, MD, PhD; Tammie L. Benzinger, MD, PhD; Chengjie Xiong, PhD; Marcus Raichle, MD; David M. Holtzman, MD; Reisa A. Sperling, MD; Richard Mayeux, MD; Bernardino Ghetti, MD; John M. Ringman, MD; Stephen Salloway, MD; Eric McDade, DO; Martin N. Rossor, MD; Sebastien Ourselin, PhD; Peter R. Schofield, PhD; Colin L. Masters, MD; Ralph N. Martins, PhD; Michael W. Weiner, MD; Paul M. Thompson, PhD; Nick C. Fox, MD; Robert A. Koeppe, PhD; Clifford R. Jack Jr, MD; Chester A. Mathis, PhD; Angela Oliver, RN; Tyler M. Blazey, BS; Krista Moulder, PhD; Virginia Buckles, PhD; Russ Hornbeck, MS; Jasmeer Chhatwal, MD, PhD; Aaron P. Schultz, PhD; Alison M. Goate, DPhil; Anne M. Fagan, PhD; Nigel J. Cairns, PhD; Daniel S. Marcus, PhD; John C. Morris, MD; Beau M. Ances, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile.

Objective  To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD....

Importance  Intravenous thrombolysis remains the mainstay treatment for acute ischemic stroke. One of the most feared complications of the treatment is thrombolysis-related symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), which occurs in nearly 6% of patients and carries close to 50% mortality. The treatment options for sICH are based on ...

Case Report/Case Series 
Sandra Baez, MS; Blas Couto, MD, PhD; Teresa Torralva, PsyD; Luciano A. Sposato, MD, MBA; David Huepe, PhD; Patricia Montañes, PhD; Pablo Reyes, MS; Diana Matallana, PhD; Nora S. Vigliecca, PhD; Andrea Slachevsky, PhD; Facundo Manes, MD, MS; Agustin Ibanez, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Several clinical reports have stated that patients with prefrontal lesions or patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia share social cognition impairments. Moral reasoning is impaired in both conditions but there have been few investigations that directly compare this domain in the 2 groups.


Original Investigation 
Adriano Chiò, MD; Andrea Calvo, MD, PhD; Giacomo Bovio, MD; Antonio Canosa, MD; Davide Bertuzzo, MD; Francesco Galmozzi; Paolo Cugnasco; Marinella Clerico, MD, PhD; Stefania De Mercanti, MD; Enrica Bersano, MD; Stefania Cammarosano, MD; Antonio Ilardi, MD; Umberto Manera, MD; Cristina Moglia, MD; Riccardo Sideri, PharmD; Kalliopi Marinou, MD; Edo Bottacchi, MD; Fabrizio Pisano, MD; Roberto Cantello, MD; Letizia Mazzini, MD; Gabriele Mora, MD; for the Piemonte and Valle d’Aosta Register for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (PARALS)
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  There is an urgent need to identify reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression for clinical practice and pharmacological trials.

Objectives  To correlate several hematological markers evaluated at diagnosis with ALS outcome in a population-based series of patients (discovery cohort) and replicate the findings ...

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