To determine the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphocytes from the progressive and recovery phases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after stimulation with Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins.
Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences.
Sixty-five patients with GBS, 60 age- and sex-matched disease control individuals, and 68 healthy control individuals were included in the study.
Main Outcome Measures
Lymphocytes from patients with GBS were stimulated with C jejuni outer membrane proteins, and the levels of different proinflammatory (TH1 [helper T cell, subtype 1]) and anti-inflammatory (TH2) cytokines were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
In the progressive phase of the disease, the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly upregulated, but expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)–β1 and IL-4 were lower in patients compared with disease and healthy controls. In contrast, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly lower, but TGF-β1 and IL-4 were upregulated in the recovery phase of GBS patients compared with controls.
Upregulation of TH1 cytokines in the early disease course may be associated with immune-mediated disease progression due to neuronal inflammation, but upregulation of TH2 immune response during the later phase aids recovery from the disease.