Non-coding RNA transcription is most active in the central nervous system (CNS), where RNA-based networks regulate a broad range of neural developmental and adult homeostatic and plasticity programs with exquisite degrees of environmental responsiveness.2,6- 8 Molecules of RNA are thought to more efficiently couple bioenergetic requirements with information storage and processing compared with DNA or protein. Therefore, the advent of RNA-based networks is thought to be responsible for fueling the explosive evolutionary innovations that characterize human brain form and function.4- 6,8,9 The brain is a conspicuous consumer of energy resources, and a major consequence of cerebral ischemia is the disruption of energy metabolism and exhaustion of adenosine triphosphate.10 Because RNA can rapidly be activated, modified, transported, and degraded, it serves as a highly flexible, high-fidelity, information encoding and functional molecule. The ability of RNA molecules to dynamically store, transform, and transmit both “digital” and “analog” information is a key feature of RNA-based systems.4,5,11 Conventional Watson and Crick base pairing represents digital information that uses energetically favored molecular conformations to determine canonical nucleotide hybridization rules. In addition to this digital information, RNA molecules also encode analog data captured by secondary and tertiary RNA structures, which are important for mediating interactions between RNA and protein molecules. This analog information is highly sensitive to the cellular microenvironment, which can dynamically modify the flexible structure and charge characteristics of RNA molecules influencing the geometry, stability, and stereochemistry of RNA-protein interactions. Thus, RNA can integrate both the digital lexicon of DNA and the analog language of proteins and dynamically participate with DNA and protein molecules in performing cellular activities.