At the first and subsequent clinic visits, data were collected from every patient, family members, medical records, and letters from the primary treating physicians. In the first clinic visit, data were collected regarding the sex, age, age at onset of epilepsy, family history of epilepsy, risk factors of epilepsy, medical and neurological history, classification of present and past seizures, frequency of each seizure type, number of seizures in the past 3 months, classification of epilepsy and epileptic syndrome, electroencephalographic (EEG) and imaging data obtained prior to initiation of the newly administered AED treatment, present and past AED treatment, reasons for discontinuation of past AED treatment, and past seizure control. Classification of epileptic seizures, epilepsy type, and epileptic syndrome was performed according to International League Against Epilepsy Classification.21- 22 On subsequent visits after initiation of newly administered AED treatments, we collected data concerning the number of seizures, adverse events, and compliance since the last clinic visit. In addition, regular blood testing was performed, including drug levels whenever possible (valproic acid, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine). All data were recorded in our in-house Oracle-based software specially modified for the Epilepsy Clinic.