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Original Contribution |

Positron Emission Tomography Metabolic Correlates of Apathy in Alzheimer Disease FREE

Gad A. Marshall, MD; Lorena Monserratt, MA; Dylan Harwood, PhD; Mark Mandelkern, MD, PhD; Jeffrey L. Cummings, MD; David L. Sultzer, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Neurology (Drs Marshall and Cummings) and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences (Drs Harwood, Cummings, and Sultzer), University of California, Los Angeles; Psychiatry Service (Ms Monserratt, and Drs Harwood and Sultzer) and Nuclear Medicine Service (Dr Mandelkern), Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles; and Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, and Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Dr Mandelkern).


Arch Neurol. 2007;64(7):1015-1020. doi:10.1001/archneur.64.7.1015.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric manifestation in Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and pathologic studies of apathy in AD have suggested an association with frontal dysfunction, most supportive of anterior cingulate abnormalities, but without a definitive localization.

Objective  To examine the association between apathy and cortical metabolic rate on positron emission tomography in AD.

Design  Forty-one subjects with probable AD underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging and neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessments. Global subscale scores from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease were used to designate the absence or presence of clinically meaningful apathy. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2; Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London, England), which yielded significance maps comparing the 2 groups.

Results  Twenty-seven (66%) subjects did not have apathy, whereas 14 (34%) had apathy. Statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significant reduced activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate region extending inferiorly to the medial orbitofrontal region (P < .001) and the bilateral medial thalamus (P = .04) in subjects with apathy. The results of the statistical parametric mapping analysis remained the same after individually covarying for the effects of global cognitive impairment, depressed mood, and education.

Conclusions  Apathy in AD is associated with reduced metabolic activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex and may be associated with reduced activity in the medial thalamus. These results reinforce the confluence of evidence from other investigational modalities in implicating medial frontal dysfunction and related neuronal circuits in the neurobiology of apathy in AD and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

Figures in this Article

While cognitive impairment is the hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), neuropsychiatric symptoms occur frequently and are very distressing to caregivers. Apathy is the most common behavioral manifestation in AD, reported to occur in 29% to 72% of patients,1,2 and may co-occur with depressed mood or appear independently.3 Clinical studies, single-photon emission computed tomography studies, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and pathologic correlations of apathy in AD have shown an association with frontal dysfunction without a definitive localization. Neuropsychologic findings in patients with AD support a link between apathy and frontal dysfunction, with greater executive deficits seen in those with apathy.4,5

Some single-photon emission computed tomography studies of apathy in AD demonstrated hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate cortex,6,7 while other studies have shown involvement of the orbitofrontal and right temporoparietal cortices.6,8,9 One magnetic resonance imaging study showed that AD patients with apathy had greater bilateral anterior cingulate and left supplementary motor cortex atrophy.10 Two pathologic studies of apathy in AD demonstrated increased neurofibrillary tangle counts in the anterior cingulate cortex.11,12

We examined the association between apathy and cortical metabolic rate on positron emission tomography (PET) in AD. We postulated that apathy in AD is associated with hypometabolism in the medial frontal regions.

SUBJECTS

We enrolled 41 subjects who met criteria from the National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Work Group13 for probable AD. Subjects were recruited from the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and University of California, Los Angeles, outpatient memory disorders clinics.

Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including a detailed history, physical examination, behavioral and cognitive assessments, serum laboratory evaluation, and structural imaging of the brain. Diagnosis of probable AD was made by an experienced subspecialty physician and was confirmed after review of the clinical information by a senior clinical research investigator (D.L.S.). Subjects did not receive any psychotropic medications, except for 50 mg or less of trazodone daily as needed for sleep for 3 weeks prior to clinical and PET assessments. None of the subjects were taking cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine.

The study was approved by the institutional review boards at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and the University of California, Los Angeles. Written informed consent was obtained from subjects or legally authorized representatives after study procedures and risks were fully explained in accordance with institutional review board guidelines.

CLINICAL DATA

The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease (SANS-AD)14 was administered to all subjects. The SANS-AD was developed to assess the following symptoms specifically in AD: affective blunting (6 subscale items and a global rating), avolition/apathy (3 subscale items and a global rating), and social/emotional withdrawal (4 subscale items and a global rating). Scores range from 0 to 5 for each item (0 = not at all, 1 = questionable, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked, and 5 = severe).

To focus on the specific phenomenon of apathy, 2 groups were designated based on absence or presence of clinically meaningful apathy derived from SANS-AD global subscale scores. Subjects with a score of 2 or more in either the avolition/apathy or social/emotional withdrawal global ratings were designated as having apathy, while subjects with a score of less than 2 in both were designated as not having apathy. The affective blunting subscale score was not considered in the assignment, as these symptoms are outside the apathy construct used in this study.

The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)15 was administered to all subjects to measure the severity of global cognitive impairment. The Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS),16 a 28-item scale covering a wide range of behavioral and cognitive symptoms, was administered to all subjects. The NRS depressed mood item was used in our study; scores range from 0 to 6 (0 = not present at all, 6 = extremely severe dysphoria). This NRS item assesses the severity of depressed mood, which includes sadness, hopelessness, and dysphoria (as distinct from apathy or disinterest) and has been shown to be reliable in patients with dementia.16 The NRS delusions item was also used. Subjects underwent clinical assessment, including SANS-AD, MMSE, and NRS, immediately prior to PET imaging.

IMAGING DATA

The Siemens 953/31 tomographic scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, Illinois) was used to perform PET imaging of cerebral metabolic activity. The scanner has an inplane spatial resolution (full width at half maximum) of approximately 5 mm and an axial slice thickness of approximately 3 mm. [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose was synthesized at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System PET imaging facility in accordance with the technique of Hamacher et al.17 Subjects received 5 to 10 mCi (1 Ci equals 3.7 × 1010 Bq) of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose intravenously. During the 40-minute [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake phase, subjects were at rest with eyes open and ears uncovered in a dimly lit room. After the uptake phase, subjects were positioned in the scanner with the imaging plane parallel to the canthomeatal plane. A thin restraining tape was placed across subjects' foreheads to maintain head position. Metabolic data were then acquired during a period of approximately 40 minutes.

IMAGE AND DATA ANALYSIS

Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM2; Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London, England; http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm) in MATLAB 6.5 software (Mathworks, Natick, Massachusetts). For each subject, PET images were transformed to a standard template in Montreal Neurological Institute Talairach and Tournoux atlas space.18 Activity values were scaled proportionately and images were smoothed with a 6-mm gaussian filter.

Two sample statistical parametric mapping analyses yielded significance maps comparing relative regional activity in subjects with apathy and subjects without apathy. Stereotactic coordinates of peak voxel differences within clusters were determined in reference to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Clusters with P < .05 (uncorrected) were considered statistically significant.

Demographic variables, including age, cognitive symptom duration, education, sex, MMSE score, and NRS depressed mood item score, were screened for differences between subjects with and without apathy using t tests for continuous variables and χ2 test for sex. Demographic variables that were significantly different were individually included as predictor variables (covariates) in a 2-sample statistical parametric mapping analysis using a linear regression model to examine the independent effect of apathy on relative regional activity. Because of potential neurobiological interaction between apathy and depressed mood, the NRS depressed mood item score and the NRS delusions item score were also included as covariates, despite not being significantly different between the 2 groups.

Among enrolled subjects, 27 (66%) did not have apathy, while 14 (34%) had apathy. Table 1 presents the demographics and clinical scores for both groups. Mean MMSE score and years of education were lower in subjects with apathy compared with subjects without apathy (MMSE, t = 2.24, P = .03; education, t = 2.05, P = .048).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographics and Clinical Scores a

Statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significant reduced activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate region (Brodmann area 24) extending inferiorly to the medial orbitofrontal region (Brodmann area 11/12; cluster level, P < .001) as well as in the bilateral medial thalamus (P = .04) in subjects with apathy compared with subjects without (Table 2, Figure 1). With statistical parametric mapping correction for multiple clusters, the findings in the anterior cingulate and the medial orbitofrontal cluster remained significant (P = .002), but the findings in the medial thalamus cluster were no longer significant (P = .50). While the peak voxel relationship was in the right hemisphere for each of these clusters, the clusters were bilateral and generally symmetric. In the statistical parametric mapping analysis to identify voxels with significant increased activity in subjects with apathy compared with those without apathy, there was increased activity in the left angular gyrus (Brodmann area 39; cluster level, P = .01) in subjects with apathy.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

A, Statistical parametric map (glass-brain view) for the 2-sample t test for proportionally scaled [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic activity. This contrast compared Alzheimer disease subjects with apathy to Alzheimer disease subjects without apathy. Voxels shown are those for which the apathy group had significantly lower activity than the without-apathy group (P < .01, uncorrected). The red v's show crosshair position in B and C. Significant voxels are also displayed on a standard magnetic resonance image with a view of the anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex (B) and the medial thalamus (C). The scales show the value of the t statistic.

Graphic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Location, Cluster Level, and Peak Voxel Coordinates of Hypometabolism in Alzheimer Disease Subjects With Apathy

The results of the statistical parametric mapping analysis remained the same after covarying for the effect of MMSE score on activity (Table 3, Figure 2). The results of the statistical parametric mapping analysis also remained the same after individually covarying for the effects of age, education, cognitive symptom duration, NRS depressed mood item score, and NRS delusions item score on activity, except that the association between apathy and activity in the thalamus was no longer significant (P = .55) after covarying for age.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

A, Statistical parametric map (glass-brain view) for the 2-sample t test for proportionally scaled [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic activity comparing Alzheimer disease subjects with apathy to Alzheimer disease subjects without apathy after covarying for Mini-Mental State Examination score. Voxels shown are those for which the apathy group has significantly lower activity than the without-apathy group (P < .01, uncorrected). The red v's show crosshair position in B. B, Significant voxels are also displayed on a standard magnetic resonance image with a view of the anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex (the thalamus is not seen on this image). The scale shows the value of the t statistic.

Graphic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Location, Cluster Level, and Peak Voxel Coordinates of Hypometabolism in AD Subjects With Apathy, With MMSE as a Covariate

Apathy in AD is associated with reduced metabolic activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and medial thalamus. The relationship with medial thalamus metabolic activity was less robust and no longer significant when corrected for multiple clusters and age. The frontal subcortical circuit implicated in apathy involves the anterior cingulate, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, midline thalamic nuclei, and medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus1921; reduced neuronal activity in several of these regions was observed in our study in subjects with AD.

The medial orbitofrontal region has reciprocal connections with the anterior cingulate and medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus,21 which is reinforced by the results of the current study and may be important in assigning internal relevance to external stimuli that a person encounters. The nucleus basalis of Meynert in the basal forebrain has cholinergic projections to the frontal limbic cortical regions, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, and midline thalamus. Dysfunction of neural systems in these projection fields (perhaps related to reduced cholinergic tone) may be related to the development of apathy in AD.21 In fact, donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, has been shown to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD, particularly apathy and hallucinations.22,23

Positron emission tomographic imaging has not been used previously to address apathy in AD. The results of the current study reinforce the confluence of evidence from other investigational modalities in implicating medial frontal dysfunction in the neurobiology of apathy in AD and other neuropsychiatric diseases47,11,24 and suggest that the specific neurophysiologic contributions to apathy occur across neuropsychiatric disorders.

In the current study, medial frontal dysfunction in AD subjects with apathy was independent of severity of global cognitive impairment, age, cognitive symptom duration, and education, underscoring the clinical and physiologic importance of behavioral symptoms in AD. Apathy has also been shown to be phenomenologically distinct from depression.25 The current study extends this distinction to regional brain function and suggests that neurobiologic correlates of apathy in AD are independent of depressed mood and delusional thoughts. This finding contributes to a better understanding of neuropsychiatric syndromes in AD.

The limitations of this study are as follows: first, the construct of apathy is variable and research findings will depend on the specific assessment instrument used. The results of the current study apply to the apathy construct used here. Second, the extent of apathy varies in patients with AD. However, in the current study, a dichotomous analysis was performed (comparing groups with and without apathy) because of the skewed distribution. Finally, many neuropsychiatric symptoms are seen in AD. However, only depressed mood and delusional thoughts were covaried for in the current study to assess the apathy relationship independent of dysphoria, which may co-occur in some patients.

In conclusion, apathy in AD—independent of severity of global cognitive impairment, age, cognitive symptom duration, education, and depressed mood—is associated with reduced metabolic activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex and may be associated with reduced activity in the medial thalamus. These results suggest a specific neurobiologic basis for the expression of apathy in AD. This finding also supports the validity of a medial frontal subcortical circuit related to apathy and helps define the role of distinct neural functional systems associated with particular clinical phenotypes across neuropsychiatric disorders.

Correspondence: David L. Sultzer, MD, Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3-South, 116AE, 11301 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90073 (dsultzer@ucla.edu).

Accepted for Publication: October 30, 2006.

Author Contributions: Dr Sultzer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Marshall, Harwood, Mandelkern, Cummings, and Sultzer. Acquisition of data: Monserratt, Harwood, Mandelkern, and Sultzer. Analysis and interpretation of data: Marshall, Monserratt, Mandelkern, and Sultzer. Drafting of the manuscript: Marshall, Monserratt, and Mandelkern. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Marshall, Harwood, Mandelkern, Cummings, and Sultzer. Statistical analysis: Marshall, Monserratt, Mandelkern, and Sultzer. Obtained funding: Cummings and Sultzer. Administrative, technical, and material support: Monserratt, Cummings, and Sultzer. Study supervision: Cummings and Sultzer.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant MH56031 from the National Institute of Mental Health and by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Additional Contributions: Amy Walston, MD, and Diane Christine, RN, assisted with patient care and clinical assessments.

Lyketsos  CGSteinberg  MTschanz  JTNorton  MCSteffens  DCBreitner  JC Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: findings from the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157 (5) 708- 714
PubMed
Mega  MSCummings  JLFiorello  TGornbein  J The spectrum of behavioral changes in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1996;46 (1) 130- 135
PubMed
Starkstein  SEPetracca  GChemerinski  EKremer  J Syndromic validity of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158 (6) 872- 877
PubMed
Kuzis  GSabe  LTiberti  CDorrego  FStarkstein  SE Neuropsychological correlates of apathy and depression in patients with dementia. Neurology 1999;52 (7) 1403- 1407
PubMed
McPherson  SFairbanks  LTiken  SCummings  JLBack-Madruga  C Apathy and executive function in Alzheimer's disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2002;8 (3) 373- 381
PubMed
Benoit  MClairet  SKoulibaly  PMDarcourt  JRobert  PH Brain perfusion correlates of the apathy inventory dimensions of Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;19 (9) 864- 869
PubMed
Migneco  OBenoit  MKoulibaly  PM  et al.  Perfusion brain SPECT and statistical parametric mapping analysis indicate that apathy is a cingulate syndrome: a study in Alzheimer's disease and nondemented patients. Neuroimage 2001;13 (5) 896- 902
PubMed
Craig  AHCummings  JLFairbanks  L  et al.  Cerebral blood flow correlates of apathy in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1996;53 (11) 1116- 1120
PubMed
Ott  BRNoto  RBFogel  BS Apathy and loss of insight in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT imaging study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;8 (1) 41- 46
PubMed
Cummings  JLApostolova  LGAkopyan  GG  et al.  Structural correlates of apathy in Alzheimer's disease [abstract]. Neurology 2006;66 (5) (suppl 2)A105
Marshall  GAFairbanks  LATekin  SVinters  HVCummings  JL Neuropathologic correlates of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21 (3) 144- 147
PubMed
Tekin  SMega  MSMasterman  DM  et al.  Orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex neurofibrillary tangle burden is associated with agitation in Alzheimer disease. Ann Neurol 2001;49 (3) 355- 361
PubMed
McKhann  GDrachman  DFolstein  MKatzman  RPrice  DStadlan  EM Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984;34 (7) 939- 944
PubMed
Reichman  WECoyne  ACAmirneni  SMolino  B  JrEgan  S Negative symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153 (3) 424- 426
PubMed
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12 (3) 189- 198
PubMed
Sultzer  DLBerisford  MAGunay  I The Neurobehavioral Rating Scale: reliability in patients with dementia. J Psychiatr Res 1995;29 (3) 185- 191
PubMed
Hamacher  KCoenen  HHStocklin  G Efficient stereospecific synthesis of no-carrier-added 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose using aminopolyether supported nucleophilic substitution. J Nucl Med 1986;27 (2) 235- 238
PubMed
Talairach  JTournoux  P Co-Planar Stereotactic Atlas of the Human Brain 3-Dimensional Proportional System: An Approach to Cerebral Imaging.  New York, NY: Thieme Medical; 1988
Cummings  JL Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Arch Neurol 1993;50 (8) 873- 880
PubMed
Cummings  JL The Neuropsychiatry of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias.  London, England: Martin Dunitz; 2003
Mega  MSCummings  JLSalloway  SMalloy  P The limbic system: an anatomic, phylogenetic, and clinical perspective. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997;9 (3) 315- 330
PubMed
Feldman  HGauthier  SHecker  J  et al.  A 24-week, randomized, double-blind study of donepezil in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 2001;57 (4) 613- 620
PubMed
Wynn  ZJCummings  JL Cholinesterase inhibitor therapies and neuropsychiatric manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17 (1-2) 100- 108
PubMed
Rosen  HJAllison  SCSchauer  GFGorno-Tempini  MLWeiner  MWMiller  BL Neuroanatomical correlates of behavioural disorders in dementia. Brain 2005;128 (pt 11) 2612- 2625
PubMed
Levy  MLCummings  JLFairbanks  LA  et al.  Apathy is not depression. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;10 (3) 314- 319
PubMed

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

A, Statistical parametric map (glass-brain view) for the 2-sample t test for proportionally scaled [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic activity. This contrast compared Alzheimer disease subjects with apathy to Alzheimer disease subjects without apathy. Voxels shown are those for which the apathy group had significantly lower activity than the without-apathy group (P < .01, uncorrected). The red v's show crosshair position in B and C. Significant voxels are also displayed on a standard magnetic resonance image with a view of the anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex (B) and the medial thalamus (C). The scales show the value of the t statistic.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

A, Statistical parametric map (glass-brain view) for the 2-sample t test for proportionally scaled [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic activity comparing Alzheimer disease subjects with apathy to Alzheimer disease subjects without apathy after covarying for Mini-Mental State Examination score. Voxels shown are those for which the apathy group has significantly lower activity than the without-apathy group (P < .01, uncorrected). The red v's show crosshair position in B. B, Significant voxels are also displayed on a standard magnetic resonance image with a view of the anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex (the thalamus is not seen on this image). The scale shows the value of the t statistic.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographics and Clinical Scores a
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Location, Cluster Level, and Peak Voxel Coordinates of Hypometabolism in Alzheimer Disease Subjects With Apathy
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Location, Cluster Level, and Peak Voxel Coordinates of Hypometabolism in AD Subjects With Apathy, With MMSE as a Covariate

References

Lyketsos  CGSteinberg  MTschanz  JTNorton  MCSteffens  DCBreitner  JC Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: findings from the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157 (5) 708- 714
PubMed
Mega  MSCummings  JLFiorello  TGornbein  J The spectrum of behavioral changes in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1996;46 (1) 130- 135
PubMed
Starkstein  SEPetracca  GChemerinski  EKremer  J Syndromic validity of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158 (6) 872- 877
PubMed
Kuzis  GSabe  LTiberti  CDorrego  FStarkstein  SE Neuropsychological correlates of apathy and depression in patients with dementia. Neurology 1999;52 (7) 1403- 1407
PubMed
McPherson  SFairbanks  LTiken  SCummings  JLBack-Madruga  C Apathy and executive function in Alzheimer's disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2002;8 (3) 373- 381
PubMed
Benoit  MClairet  SKoulibaly  PMDarcourt  JRobert  PH Brain perfusion correlates of the apathy inventory dimensions of Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;19 (9) 864- 869
PubMed
Migneco  OBenoit  MKoulibaly  PM  et al.  Perfusion brain SPECT and statistical parametric mapping analysis indicate that apathy is a cingulate syndrome: a study in Alzheimer's disease and nondemented patients. Neuroimage 2001;13 (5) 896- 902
PubMed
Craig  AHCummings  JLFairbanks  L  et al.  Cerebral blood flow correlates of apathy in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1996;53 (11) 1116- 1120
PubMed
Ott  BRNoto  RBFogel  BS Apathy and loss of insight in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT imaging study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;8 (1) 41- 46
PubMed
Cummings  JLApostolova  LGAkopyan  GG  et al.  Structural correlates of apathy in Alzheimer's disease [abstract]. Neurology 2006;66 (5) (suppl 2)A105
Marshall  GAFairbanks  LATekin  SVinters  HVCummings  JL Neuropathologic correlates of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21 (3) 144- 147
PubMed
Tekin  SMega  MSMasterman  DM  et al.  Orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex neurofibrillary tangle burden is associated with agitation in Alzheimer disease. Ann Neurol 2001;49 (3) 355- 361
PubMed
McKhann  GDrachman  DFolstein  MKatzman  RPrice  DStadlan  EM Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984;34 (7) 939- 944
PubMed
Reichman  WECoyne  ACAmirneni  SMolino  B  JrEgan  S Negative symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153 (3) 424- 426
PubMed
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12 (3) 189- 198
PubMed
Sultzer  DLBerisford  MAGunay  I The Neurobehavioral Rating Scale: reliability in patients with dementia. J Psychiatr Res 1995;29 (3) 185- 191
PubMed
Hamacher  KCoenen  HHStocklin  G Efficient stereospecific synthesis of no-carrier-added 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose using aminopolyether supported nucleophilic substitution. J Nucl Med 1986;27 (2) 235- 238
PubMed
Talairach  JTournoux  P Co-Planar Stereotactic Atlas of the Human Brain 3-Dimensional Proportional System: An Approach to Cerebral Imaging.  New York, NY: Thieme Medical; 1988
Cummings  JL Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Arch Neurol 1993;50 (8) 873- 880
PubMed
Cummings  JL The Neuropsychiatry of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias.  London, England: Martin Dunitz; 2003
Mega  MSCummings  JLSalloway  SMalloy  P The limbic system: an anatomic, phylogenetic, and clinical perspective. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997;9 (3) 315- 330
PubMed
Feldman  HGauthier  SHecker  J  et al.  A 24-week, randomized, double-blind study of donepezil in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 2001;57 (4) 613- 620
PubMed
Wynn  ZJCummings  JL Cholinesterase inhibitor therapies and neuropsychiatric manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17 (1-2) 100- 108
PubMed
Rosen  HJAllison  SCSchauer  GFGorno-Tempini  MLWeiner  MWMiller  BL Neuroanatomical correlates of behavioural disorders in dementia. Brain 2005;128 (pt 11) 2612- 2625
PubMed
Levy  MLCummings  JLFairbanks  LA  et al.  Apathy is not depression. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;10 (3) 314- 319
PubMed

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Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
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