We describe a 71-year-old woman who had undergone explantation of an infected hip prosthesis. Microbiological cultures from local tissue revealed multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and intravenous combination therapy with linezolid (600 mg twice daily) and rifampin (600 mg/d) was started based on results of the antibiotic sensitivity test. Five days later, the patient was transferred to the Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, after experiencing a focal motor seizure of the right arm. Moreover, she experienced worsening holocephalic headache and reported blurred vision. On admission to the hospital, the patient was awake, disoriented, and had reduced vision; optokinetic nystagmus was not present. Further neurological and medical examination findings were unremarkable, her blood pressure was 155/95 mm Hg, and her heart rate was 102 beats/min; the patient had no fever. Her medical history included paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and hypertension under medical treatment without a recent crisis. Her daily medications consisted of 20 mg of omeprazole magnesium, 10 mg of ramipril, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, 10 mg of torsemide, 90 mg of metoprolol succinate, 200 mg of iodine, 5700 IU of nadroparin calcium, and 1000 mg of metamizole dipyrone, as well as 300 mg of allopurinol and the already mentioned antibiotics. Standard laboratory test results revealed an elevated C-reactive protein level of 99 mg/dL (reference range, <5 mg/dL), with the remainder of the routine variables, including liver and kidney function and vasculitic factors (antinuclear antibody, extractable nuclear antigen, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody), within normal range. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination demonstrated a normal cell count (1 cell/μL) and cytology, with an increased CSF protein level of 1.06 g/L resulting from a deteriorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) and an increased CFS-serum ratio of 16 for albumin (reference range, <9). Oligoclonal bands in CSF and serum and second blood cultures were negative. An initial electroencephalogram was normal, as was ultrasonography of the carotid and vertebral arteries. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple focal, mainly posterior, white and gray matter hyperintensities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and diffusion-weighted images displaying vasogenic edema (Figure 1A). Because the apparent diffusion coefficient was elevated within the lesions, ischemia was excluded. With the diagnosis of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES), we adjusted the blood pressure to a maximum systolic value of 140 mm Hg by intravenous therapy with metoprolol, dihydralazine sulfate, and urapidil. Moreover, the patient was treated with phenytoin sodium for seizure prophylaxis. The patient's headache improved and the inflammation variables declined but her blurred vision persisted.