0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Contribution |

Accelerated Weight Loss May Precede Diagnosis in Alzheimer Disease FREE

David K. Johnson, PhD; Consuelo H. Wilkins, MD; John C. Morris, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Neurology (Drs Johnson and Morris), Internal Medicine (Dr Wilkins), and Pathology and Immunology (Dr Morris), the Program in Physical Therapy (Dr Morris), and the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (Drs Johnson, Wilkins, and Morris), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo.


Arch Neurol. 2006;63(9):1312-1317. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.9.1312.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objectives  To determine the association of weight loss and the onset of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and to characterize the rate of weight change over time in older adults (aged 65-95 years) who develop DAT vs those who remain without dementia.

Design  Rates of weight change were investigated in older adult research participants (N = 449) who were enrolled as control subjects without dementia and followed up longitudinally (6 years on average) at the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine. Some individuals (n = 125) eventually developed DAT; the others (n = 324) remained without dementia. Body weight was measured at each annual assessment. Piecewise linear regression and random effects models were used to test longitudinal rates of weight change between the groups.

Results  Participants without dementia lost about 0.6 lb per year. For those individuals who developed DAT, about 1 year before the detection of DAT, the rate of weight loss doubled (1.2 lb per year). As a group, participants who eventually developed DAT weighed less (about 8 pounds) at study enrollment (ie, when they did not have dementia) than participants who remained without dementia.

Conclusions  Aging with and without DAT is associated with weight loss; however, weight loss may accelerate before the diagnosis of DAT. Specific factors contributing to weight loss are unknown, but these data suggest they operate before the development of DAT. Hence, weight loss may be a preclinical indicator of Alzheimer disease.

Figures in this Article

Some reports suggest that mild weight loss in old age may be a downstream effect of normal aging processes associated with reduced metabolic demands1,2 and appetite35 and diminishing physical stature and height.6,7 However, unintentional weight loss at any age may be a marker for disease.8,9 Even mild weight loss in old age is associated with specific diseases and increased mortality.1019 More recently, Alzheimer disease (AD) has emerged as a contributor to age-related weight loss. In late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), there is a loss of up to 2 pounds of body weight per year.20 Weight loss is associated with faster progression of dementia and with nursing home placement.2024 In studies that compared weight changes in people who eventually develop DAT vs those who remain without dementia, decreasing body weight increased the risk for dementia,18,25 and participants who eventually developed DAT lost weight faster than their counterparts without dementia.2629

The exact course of weight loss and its temporal relationship to the onset of DAT remain unknown. Our goals were to determine the interval between the occurrence of weight loss and the onset of dementia and to characterize the rate of weight change over time in older (aged 65-95 years) adults with and without dementia.

PARTICIPANTS

We examined archival data from all available research participants without dementia and with weight measurements who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of memory and aging between January 1, 1991, and March 1, 2005 (demographics reported in the Table). Of the 449 individuals who were initially without dementia, 60 men and 65 women developed DAT; 132 men and 192 women remained without dementia through their last assessment. All participants spoke English and lived in the greater St Louis metropolitan area. Twenty-three were African American and the remainder were white.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Characteristics of the Samples at Enrollment, at Dementia Diagnosis, and at the Last Assessment*
CLINICAL ASSESSMENT

At enrollment and annual follow-up, experienced clinicians assessed each participant for the presence and severity of dementia using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).30 The CDR evaluates cognitive function in each of 6 categories (memory, orientation, judgment and problem solving, performance in community affairs, home and hobbies, and personal care). Ratings are based on information gathered during a 90-minute semistructured clinical assessment with the research participant and a knowledgeable collateral source (usually a spouse or an adult child) but without reference to psychometric performance or results of previous evaluations.3133 A CDR of 0 indicates no dementia; and a rating of 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 corresponds to very mild, mild, moderate, or severe dementia. The CDR has high interrater reliability, with weighted κ values ranging from 0.75 to 0.94.34,35 Embedded in the clinical evaluation are standard cognitive screening tools, such as the Short Blessed Test for cognitive impairment36 and the Mini-Mental State Examination.37 The CDR has been validated in studies of all forms of dementia, is sensitive to clinical progression, and is highly correlated (93%) with autopsy-confirmed AD.31,32,38

At each time of assessment, the participant was weighed using a professional medical scale with light clothes on and shoes off. Experienced clinicians took the participant's medical history from the collateral source and the participant, which included questions pertinent to weight loss. Clinicians summarized the interviews to indicate whether specific disorders were present (stroke and cardiovascular incidents, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, depression, head trauma, anosmia, dysphagia, and caregiving) or rated symptoms along a continuum (physical health39 and socioeconomic status40). The presence of APOE (apolipoprotein) ε4 alleles was determined for 395 participants (278 without dementia and 117 with DAT) using restriction enzyme isotyping.41 Participants who did not undergo genotyping were assessed before the initiation of genotyping at our center.

INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA

Although multiple medical diagnoses were allowed for the participants with dementia, DAT was the primary diagnosis. People with other potentially dementing disorders (eg, Parkinson disease) were excluded. Participants reporting depressive symptoms but not meeting the criteria for major depression42 were included. Longitudinal data for the participants without dementia included all times of assessment from study enrollment through last available assessment. Longitudinal data for the participants with DAT included all available assessments at which they received a CDR of 0 or 0.5, except for 8 who progressed directly from a CDR of 0 to a 1. We did not examine any data from participants rated as having a CDR of 1 unless it was their first assessment with a diagnosis of DAT. In all, there were 2224 times of observation.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Group comparisons of quantitative measures at enrollment and at last assessment were conducted using t tests. The χ2 test of independence was used for nominal variables. Because the longitudinal course of weight data did not meet standard linear assumptions, several competing models were fit to the data to determine an appropriate analytic strategy, including quadratic and cubic transformations and piecewise linear regression. This model-fitting procedure is described in detail by Fitzmaurice et al.43

Piecewise linear regression fit the data best and showed that the longitudinal course of body weight data are best represented by 2 linear segments with different slopes joined together by a single inflection point (Figure). Using the linear element-effects model (PROC ELEMENT in SAS statistical software, version 9.1; SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC), we applied simultaneous between-group tests to these segmented data. A element-effects model (random intercept and slopes) has an advantage over standard repeated-measures designs in that intraindividual and interindividual variability is estimated more efficiently and is less susceptible to differences in premorbid ability. For example, the weight of the individual at study enrollment is accounted for by the random intercept specification of the model. These models are also less affected by missing data or unequally spaced follow-ups, and can account for multiple slopes over time.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Average weight loss (men and women combined) over time by group. T0 indicates the time of dementia diagnosis; T − 1 through T − 6, times of assessment before diagnosis; and T + 1 through T + 3, times of assessment after diagnosis.

Graphic Jump Location

Element models can also be used to account for potential mediating effects (eg, age and diabetes mellitus).4345 Thus, in a second set of analyses, we controlled for the mediating effects of variables that may affect declining body weight as a function of dementia status. The longitudinal contributions of a variety of health risks were tested to determine potential covariates, thus yielding a purer index of dementia-related weight loss because age, sex, and other confounding effects were statistically controlled. Longitudinal tests of covariates differ from cross-sectional tests in that they determine not only group differences but also whether differences are related to weight loss over time (weight × group × time interaction).

Descriptive characteristics for the 2 groups are reported in a time-sequential fashion in the Table. The 2 groups were similar with respect to the proportion of men and women, educational level, and socioeconomic status. Although the DAT group had a slightly higher proportion of the APOE ε4 allele (as measured by at least 1 allele) compared with the group without DAT, this difference was not significant. All genotypic comparisons were conducted, but no group differences were found. The group that developed DAT was older (4.6 years) and weighed less (8.2 pounds) at study enrollment compared with those who remained without DAT. Those who developed DAT performed slightly worse at enrollment on the 2 cognitive screening measures (Mini-Mental State Examination and Short Blessed Test). The 2 groups were not different at enrollment in marital status, health rating, or various medical conditions or in taking potentially anorectic medications.

Follow-up for the participants with and without DAT was between 5 and 6 years. The 2 groups differed on the 2 cognitive screening measures at the last assessment (P<.001 for both). The participants with DAT (n = 449) were more likely to be widowed (χ21 = 4.87, P<.05) and were in poorer physical health (as reported on the Physical Health Rating Scale, P<.001) than the group without dementia. They reported more depressive symptoms (n = 447) (χ21 = 6.88, P<.001) and were more likely to take cholinesterase inhibitor and N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist drugs (n = 441) (χ21=18.76, P<.001). This sample is relatively naïve for dementia medications approved for the symptomatic treatment of AD (186 observations of 2224 total). Several factors explain why so few participants were treated with approved drugs. First, all the participants were research volunteers; clinical management was provided by their primary care physicians, not by the research clinicians. Second, most participants (117 of 125) in the group with dementia were staged CDR 0.5 and may have been too minimally impaired to trigger treatment decisions by their primary physicians. Third, some participants were enrolled and assessed before market introduction of approved symptomatic therapies for AD. All analyses were performed with and without observations during which participants reported taking dementia medications. The pattern and magnitude of results were equivalent. In general, dementia medications slightly accentuated weight loss, but a separate study with more people taking these medications is needed to gain reliable estimates of the contribution these medications make to weight loss. The groups with and without dementia did not differ significantly at last assessment in terms of any of the other medical conditions or medications (P>.05 for all).

The longitudinal course of body weight data did not meet standard linear assumptions. There was a significant group × time squared interaction (t53.3 = 2.53, P<.01), indicating that the overall course of weight loss differed between groups. There was a significant linear trend in the group without dementia (t189 = 5.17, P<.001), but not quadratic (t39.9 = 0.13, P>.05), whereas the linear and quadratic terms (t55.9 = 5.08, P<.001; and t130 = 2.48, P<.01, respectively) were significant for the DAT group. That is, both groups lost weight, but the rate of weight loss changed over time for the DAT group. A piecewise linear regression was applied to account for differential acceleration in weight loss between the groups (Figure).

Seven time points were tested, including the time of assessment when dementia was first diagnosed (T0), 3 times of assessment before the dementia diagnosis (T − 1 through T − 3), and 3 times of assessment after the dementia diagnosis (T + 1 through T + 3). Likelihood ratio tests confirmed that body weight among the older adults with DAT was best fit by a piecewise linear function with 2 segments joined 1 year before the diagnosis of dementia (G2 2 = 101.6, P<.001). Thus, weight loss in the DAT group is best described by 2 linear functions that bend sharply at the assessment 1 year before diagnosis (Figure). In contrast, the data for the group without dementia were best fit by a constant linear function that did not change over time.

In the group without dementia, weight loss was 0.65 lb (SE, 0.13) per year for the entire study period. In the group with dementia, weight loss was similar (0.68 [SE, 0.27] lb per year; t537 = 1.05, P>.05), until 1 year before the dementia diagnosis, when there was a sharp acceleration such that the slope roughly doubled in magnitude (−1.34 [SE, 0.30] lb per year; t528 = 2.36, P<.05). Although the groups with and without DAT did not differ in their rate of weight loss before the T − 1 assessment, there was a significant main effect of weight (t537 = 3.19, P<.01), indicating that the group with DAT was already lighter at study enrollment (8.2 lb).

A second set of analyses examined the role of potential mediating influences to weight loss. The older a participant was at study enrollment, the more weight that individual lost over time (t405 = −2.19, P<.05), especially as a function of cognitive status. Sex and health status were also significant (t360 = 4.23, P<.05; and F4,1288 = 2.53, P<.05, respectively). The same was true for hypertension (t1469 = −2.12, P<.05) and stroke history (t1243 = −2.63, P<.05). Marital status (t1317 = −0.52, P>.05) and depressive mood (t1416 = −0.20, P>.05), however, were associated with dementia status but were not related to weight loss over time. All other health risks investigated were not related to either group or time (educational level, APOE ε4 status, diabetes mellitus, and reported changes in appetite). Thus, the second set of analyses of weight loss and dementia status included age at study enrollment, sex, health status, hypertension, and stroke history as covariates.

The covariate model showed a similar pattern of significance to the first model. Compared with healthy aging participants, individuals who progress to DAT begin to lose about twice as much weight 1 year before the onset of symptoms. Older adults without dementia lost 0.48 (SE, 0.13) lb per year, while the older adults with dementia lost 1.17 (SE, 0.30) lb per year. Controlling for health risks attenuated weight loss equally in both groups.

This study examined weight loss and its temporal correspondence to dementia onset. Although other studies18,2529 have shown that weight loss is an antecedent of DAT, to our knowledge, this is the first to characterize the time course of weight loss and its relationship to dementia onset. In a sample of clinically well-characterized older adults who were cognitively healthy at enrollment, an acceleration in the rate of weight loss was a harbinger of the change from nondemented status to DAT. Participants lost about 0.6 lb per year while without dementia, but 1 year before the first symptomatic detection of DAT, the rate of weight loss in individuals doubled to 1.2 lb per year. Also, participants with DAT already weighed less (about 8 lb) than participants without dementia at study enrollment, and this difference persisted throughout the study.

Small multiplicative effects of age, sex, health, hypertension, and stroke with weight were found. Similar to other studies18,2024,26,27,29 of weight loss and aging, older people lost more weight than younger people, men lost more weight than women, people in poorer health lost more weight than people in good health, and individuals with cardiovascular symptoms lost more weight than those without such symptoms. Although weight loss in those with dementia was greatest when these health risks were present, none of these risks mediated the doubling relationship between dementia status and weight loss. Dementia of the Alzheimer type was the driving cause of weight loss in this longitudinal sample. Other health risks investigated (depressive symptoms, marital status, use of potentially anorectic medications, APOE ε4 expression, diabetes mellitus, and appetite change) were not related to weight loss and dementia progression. Cardiovascular factors, such as myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attacks, stroke history, smoking, and hypertension, also seem to be unrelated in previous studies.25,26,29

Consistent with studies17,11,12,15,17,18 that suggest very modest weight loss in later life may be because of normal age-related physiologic changes, we found that aging without dementia was marked by gradual declines in body weight. These effects are small and do not account for the weight loss in those with DAT. Individuals who eventually develop dementia (preclinical DAT)46 have already lost a significant amount of weight 4 to 6 years before diagnosis. The onset of dementia exaggerates mild weight loss, doubling its rate in the year before the clinical detection of the mildest behavioral symptoms.

Taken together, findings from the present study and from previous epidemiologic studies2629 suggest that the preclinical course of DAT is marked by 2 phases of increasing weight loss. At midlife, participants who will eventually have dementia weigh as much as their peers without dementia. At late midlife or early late life, these individuals begin to lose weight at faster rates, and by 6 years before dementia detection, participants who will eventually develop DAT are 6 to 8 pounds lighter on average. The present study shows that at least 1 year before dementia detection, the rate of weight loss again increases. Thus, weight loss associated with DAT probably begins very early in the course of the disease and then accelerates in the 1 to 2 years before the onset of cognitive symptoms.

The mechanisms responsible for these findings are unknown. A psychosocial hypothesis is that individuals with dementia forget to eat; however, this seems unlikely given that weight loss starts before the onset of symptoms and that marital status (the presence of a caregiver for most participants) is unrelated to weight loss in this and other studies.26 Caregiver burden outstripping the ability to prepare food for the individual with dementia seems unlikely for the same reasons. The individuals with DAT were more depressed, but depression did not vary with body weight. This is similar to other findings from this center, in which depression did not affect the rate of cognitive decline in the same sample.47 Furthermore, 3 other studies25,26,29 controlled for depressive symptoms and no associations were found. These observations contradict the hypothesis that weight loss in late life is caused by depression.4850

Medically, DAT could affect appetite; however, our study supports findings from Barrett-Connor and colleagues26 indicating that appetite remains unchanged (as reported by the individual with dementia and a knowledgeable collateral source). An unchanged appetite does not, however, indicate a stable diet. There are reports of mild to moderate changes in taste and smell in healthy aging populations5153 and in populations with dementia,5457 and these factors need to be measured rigorously in future studies. Subtle gustatory changes could result in cumulative decreases in caloric intake or decreases in the quality of food consumed by individuals with DAT. Given the present findings, these changes would have to be present for at least 6 years while without dementia and then significantly worsen 1 to 2 years before dementia detection.

Overall, we believe that these findings suggest that ongoing pathophysiologic changes in preclinical AD are related to weight loss. Future investigation of weight loss during the preclinical stage may shed light on the pathogenesis of DAT. Examining the overlapping biological processes associated with cachexia, anorexia, and other wasting syndromes may provide new insights. If true, weight loss is not a risk factor for DAT; rather, it is an early manifestation of the disease. Given the time course of weight loss as healthy aging individuals convert to DAT, future studies of frailty and weight loss should closely monitor and control for participants' cognitive status over time.

The present study is limited in making conclusions about the preexisting 8-lb group difference because we did not observe individuals from midlife. It is possible that heavier individuals lose body weight faster than lighter individuals. Conversely, heavier individuals who would otherwise have dementia may have disease in midlife, preventing their inclusion in this late-life longitudinal research study. Optimally, more sophisticated weight indexes (eg, body mass index or percentage of fat) are needed to address these issues. Proportional estimates of weight loss may be associated with cognitive status; thresholds of weight loss deserve further investigation. Furthermore, some of the group without dementia may actually contain individuals who have preclinical DAT. If weight loss accelerates before dementia diagnosis, the inclusion of individuals with DAT in the sample without dementia would attenuate group differences in observed weight loss and weaken results. Thus, the reported results may slightly overestimate weight loss in aging persons without dementia (compare with estimates from White and colleagues28). Also, neuropathologic follow-up of these individuals is needed to rule out confounding non–AD-associated dementias and may yield insight into weight loss and atypical dementias. It would be useful to characterize atypical dementias to determine if weight loss is DAT specific or more general to other types of late-life brain disease. Finally, too few participants were treated with cholinesterase inhibitor drugs, precluding the analysis of the effect that these drugs may have on weight loss in dementia. These data are preliminary, and a larger more detailed study is required.

Correspondence: John C. Morris, MD, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, 4488 Forest Park, Suite 130, St Louis, MO 63108 (morrisj@abraxas.wustl.edu).

Accepted for Publication: May 10, 2006.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Johnson, Wilkins, and Morris. Acquisition of data: Johnson and Morris. Analysis and interpretation of data: Johnson. Drafting of the manuscript: Johnson. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Johnson, Wilkins, and Morris. Statistical analysis: Johnson. Obtained funding: Morris. Administrative, technical, and material support: Morris. Study supervision: Morris.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants P01 AG03991 and P50 AG05681 from the National Institute on Aging (Dr Morris); and by the Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Charitable Trust.

Acknowledgment: We thank Martha Storandt, PhD, Chengjie Xiong, PhD, and Elizabeth Grant, PhD, Washington University, for their assistance in preparing the manuscript; and the Clinical (Dr Morris, leader) and Genetics (A. M. Goate, DPhil, leader) Cores of the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center for providing diagnostic and genotyping data.

Morley  JE Pathophysiology of anorexia. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18661- 673
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia and weight loss in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58131- 137
PubMed Link to Article
Parker  BAChapman  IM Food intake and ageing: the role of the gut. Mech Ageing Dev 2004;125859- 866
PubMed Link to Article
Parker  BALudher  AKLoon  TKHorowitz  MChapman  IM Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women. Appetite 2004;43227- 233
PubMed Link to Article
Donini  LMSavina  CCannella  C Eating habits and appetite control in the elderly: the anorexia of aging. Int Psychogeriatr 2003;1573- 87
PubMed Link to Article
Sorkin  JDMuller  DCAndres  R Longitudinal change in the heights of men and women: consequential effects on body mass index. Epidemiol Rev 1999;21247- 260
PubMed Link to Article
Sorkin  JDMuller  DCAndres  R Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150969- 977
PubMed Link to Article
Wannamethee  SGShaper  AGLennon  L Reasons for intentional weight loss, unintentional weight loss, and mortality in older men. Arch Intern Med 2005;1651035- 1040
PubMed Link to Article
Droyvold  WBLund Nilsen  TILydersen  S  et al.  Weight change and mortality: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. J Intern Med 2005;257338- 345
PubMed Link to Article
Bilbao-Garay  JBarba  RLosa-Garcia  JE  et al.  Assessing clinical probability of organic disease in patients with involuntary weight loss: a simple score. Eur J Intern Med 2002;13240- 245
PubMed Link to Article
Cornoni-Huntley  JCHarris  TBEverett  DF  et al.  An overview of body weight of older persons, including the impact on mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I–Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44743- 753
PubMed Link to Article
Deeg  DJMiles  TPVan Zonneveld  RJCurb  JD Weight change, survival time and cause of death in Dutch elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1990;1097- 111
PubMed Link to Article
Marton  KISox  HC  JrKrupp  JR Involuntary weight loss: diagnostic and prognostic significance. Ann Intern Med 1981;95568- 574
PubMed Link to Article
Galanos  ANPieper  CFCornoni-Huntley  JCBales  CWFillenbaum  GG Nutrition and function: is there a relationship between body mass index and the functional capabilities of community-dwelling elderly? J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42368- 373
PubMed
Losonczy  KGHarris  TBCornoni-Huntley  J  et al.  Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age? Am J Epidemiol 1995;141312- 321
PubMed Link to Article
Rabinovitz  MPitlik  SDLeifer  MGarty  MRosenfeld  JB Unintentional weight loss: a retrospective analysis of 154 cases. Arch Intern Med 1986;146186- 187
PubMed Link to Article
Wallace  JISchwartz  RSLaCroix  AZUhlmann  RFPearlman  RA Involuntary weight loss in older outpatients: incidence and clinical significance. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43329- 337
PubMed
White  HPieper  CSchmader  KFillenbaum  G Weight change in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44265- 272
PubMed
Wannamethee  SGShaper  AG Weight change and duration of overweight and obesity in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;221266- 1272
PubMed Link to Article
White  HPieper  CSchmader  K The association of weight change in Alzheimer's disease with severity of disease and mortality: a longitudinal analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;461223- 1227
PubMed
Franklin  CAKarkeck  J Weight loss and senile dementia in an institutionalized elderly population. J Am Diet Assoc 1989;89790- 792
PubMed
Gillette-Guyonnet  SNourhashemi  FAndrieu  S  et al.  Weight loss in Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71637S- 642S
PubMed
Nourhashemi  FDeschamps  VLarrieu  SLetenneur  LDartigues  JFBarberger-Gateau  P Body mass index and incidence of dementia: the PAQUID study. Neurology 2003;60117- 119
PubMed Link to Article
Wang  SY Weight loss and metabolic changes in dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 2002;6201- 205
PubMed
Buchman  ASWilson  RSBienas  JLShah  RCEvans  DABennett  DA Change in body mass index and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2005;65892- 897
PubMed Link to Article
Barrett-Connor  EEdelstein  SLCorey-Bloom  JWiederholt  WC Weight loss precedes dementia in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;441147- 1152
PubMed
Cronin-Stubbs  DBeckett  LAScherr  PA  et al.  Weight loss in people with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective population based analysis. BMJ 1997;314178- 179
PubMed Link to Article
White  HPieper  CSchmader  KFillenbaum  G A longitudinal analysis of weight change in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45531- 532
PubMed
Stewart  RMasaki  KXue  QL  et al.  A 32-year prospective study of change in body weight and incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Arch Neurol 2005;6255- 60
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JC The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;432412- 2414
PubMed Link to Article
Berg  LMcKeel  DW  JrMiller  JPBaty  JMorris  JC Neuropathological indices of Alzheimer's disease in demented and nondemented persons aged 80 years and older. Arch Neurol 1993;50349- 358
PubMed Link to Article
Berg  LMcKeel  DW  JrMiller  JP  et al.  Clinicopathologic studies in cognitively healthy aging and Alzheimer disease: relation of histologic markers to dementia severity, age, sex, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Arch Neurol 1998;55326- 335
PubMed Link to Article
Rubin  EHStorandt  MMiller  JP  et al.  A prospective study of cognitive function and onset of dementia in cognitively healthy elders. Arch Neurol 1998;55395- 401
PubMed Link to Article
Burke  WJMiller  JPRubin  EH  et al.  Reliability of the Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating. Arch Neurol 1988;4531- 32
PubMed Link to Article
McCulla  MMCoats  MVan Fleet  NDuchek  JGrant  EMorris  JC Reliability of clinical nurse specialists in the staging of dementia. Arch Neurol 1989;461210- 1211
PubMed Link to Article
Blessed  GTomlinson  BERoth  M The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of the elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 1968;114797- 811
PubMed Link to Article
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinicians. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12189- 198
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCMcKeel  DWFulling  KTorack  RMBerg  L Validation of clinical diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 1988;2417- 22
PubMed Link to Article
Reuben  DBSiu  AL An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;381105- 1112
PubMed
Hollingshead  AB Four Factor Index of Social Status.  New Haven, Conn: Department of Sociology, Yale University; 1975
Hixson  JEVernier  DT Restriction isotyping of human apolipoprotein E by gene amplification and cleavage with HhaI. J Lipid Res 1990;31545- 548
PubMed
American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition.  Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994
Fitzmaurice  GMLaird  NMWare  JM Applied Longitudinal Analysis.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Interscience; 2004
Laird  NMWare  JH Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics 1982;38963- 974
PubMed Link to Article
Littel  RCMilliken  GAStroup  WWWolfinger  RD SAS System for Element Models.  Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1996
Morris  JCPrice  JL Pathologic correlates of nondemented aging, mild cognitive impairment, and early-stage Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Neurosci 2001;17101- 118
PubMed Link to Article
Powlishta  KKStorandt  MMandernach  TAHogan  EGrant  EAMorris  JC Absence of effect of depression on cognitive performance in early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2004;611265- 1268
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia, sarcopenia, and aging. Nutrition 2001;17660- 663
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia, body composition, and ageing. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001;49- 13
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia of aging: physiologic and pathologic. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66760- 773
PubMed
Schiffman  SSGraham  BG Taste and smell perception affect appetite and immunity in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(suppl 3)S54- S63
PubMed Link to Article
Schiffman  SS Taste and smell losses in normal aging and disease. JAMA 1997;2781357- 1362
PubMed Link to Article
Suzuki  YCritchley  HDSuckling  J  et al.  Functional magnetic resonance imaging of odor identification: the effect of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56M756- M760
PubMed Link to Article
Rezek  DL Olfactory deficits as a neurologic sign in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch Neurol 1987;441030- 1032
PubMed Link to Article
Schiffman  SSGraham  BGSattely-Miller  EAZervakis  JWelsh-Bohmer  K Taste, smell and neuropsychological performance of individuals at familial risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2002;23397- 404
PubMed Link to Article
Tabert  MHLiu  XDoty  RL  et al.  A 10-item smell identification scale related to risk for Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 2005;58155- 160
PubMed Link to Article
Suzuki  YYamamoto  SUmegaki  H  et al.  Smell identification test as an indicator for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;19727- 733
PubMed Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Average weight loss (men and women combined) over time by group. T0 indicates the time of dementia diagnosis; T − 1 through T − 6, times of assessment before diagnosis; and T + 1 through T + 3, times of assessment after diagnosis.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Characteristics of the Samples at Enrollment, at Dementia Diagnosis, and at the Last Assessment*

References

Morley  JE Pathophysiology of anorexia. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18661- 673
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia and weight loss in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58131- 137
PubMed Link to Article
Parker  BAChapman  IM Food intake and ageing: the role of the gut. Mech Ageing Dev 2004;125859- 866
PubMed Link to Article
Parker  BALudher  AKLoon  TKHorowitz  MChapman  IM Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women. Appetite 2004;43227- 233
PubMed Link to Article
Donini  LMSavina  CCannella  C Eating habits and appetite control in the elderly: the anorexia of aging. Int Psychogeriatr 2003;1573- 87
PubMed Link to Article
Sorkin  JDMuller  DCAndres  R Longitudinal change in the heights of men and women: consequential effects on body mass index. Epidemiol Rev 1999;21247- 260
PubMed Link to Article
Sorkin  JDMuller  DCAndres  R Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150969- 977
PubMed Link to Article
Wannamethee  SGShaper  AGLennon  L Reasons for intentional weight loss, unintentional weight loss, and mortality in older men. Arch Intern Med 2005;1651035- 1040
PubMed Link to Article
Droyvold  WBLund Nilsen  TILydersen  S  et al.  Weight change and mortality: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. J Intern Med 2005;257338- 345
PubMed Link to Article
Bilbao-Garay  JBarba  RLosa-Garcia  JE  et al.  Assessing clinical probability of organic disease in patients with involuntary weight loss: a simple score. Eur J Intern Med 2002;13240- 245
PubMed Link to Article
Cornoni-Huntley  JCHarris  TBEverett  DF  et al.  An overview of body weight of older persons, including the impact on mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I–Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44743- 753
PubMed Link to Article
Deeg  DJMiles  TPVan Zonneveld  RJCurb  JD Weight change, survival time and cause of death in Dutch elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1990;1097- 111
PubMed Link to Article
Marton  KISox  HC  JrKrupp  JR Involuntary weight loss: diagnostic and prognostic significance. Ann Intern Med 1981;95568- 574
PubMed Link to Article
Galanos  ANPieper  CFCornoni-Huntley  JCBales  CWFillenbaum  GG Nutrition and function: is there a relationship between body mass index and the functional capabilities of community-dwelling elderly? J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42368- 373
PubMed
Losonczy  KGHarris  TBCornoni-Huntley  J  et al.  Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age? Am J Epidemiol 1995;141312- 321
PubMed Link to Article
Rabinovitz  MPitlik  SDLeifer  MGarty  MRosenfeld  JB Unintentional weight loss: a retrospective analysis of 154 cases. Arch Intern Med 1986;146186- 187
PubMed Link to Article
Wallace  JISchwartz  RSLaCroix  AZUhlmann  RFPearlman  RA Involuntary weight loss in older outpatients: incidence and clinical significance. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43329- 337
PubMed
White  HPieper  CSchmader  KFillenbaum  G Weight change in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44265- 272
PubMed
Wannamethee  SGShaper  AG Weight change and duration of overweight and obesity in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;221266- 1272
PubMed Link to Article
White  HPieper  CSchmader  K The association of weight change in Alzheimer's disease with severity of disease and mortality: a longitudinal analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;461223- 1227
PubMed
Franklin  CAKarkeck  J Weight loss and senile dementia in an institutionalized elderly population. J Am Diet Assoc 1989;89790- 792
PubMed
Gillette-Guyonnet  SNourhashemi  FAndrieu  S  et al.  Weight loss in Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71637S- 642S
PubMed
Nourhashemi  FDeschamps  VLarrieu  SLetenneur  LDartigues  JFBarberger-Gateau  P Body mass index and incidence of dementia: the PAQUID study. Neurology 2003;60117- 119
PubMed Link to Article
Wang  SY Weight loss and metabolic changes in dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 2002;6201- 205
PubMed
Buchman  ASWilson  RSBienas  JLShah  RCEvans  DABennett  DA Change in body mass index and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2005;65892- 897
PubMed Link to Article
Barrett-Connor  EEdelstein  SLCorey-Bloom  JWiederholt  WC Weight loss precedes dementia in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;441147- 1152
PubMed
Cronin-Stubbs  DBeckett  LAScherr  PA  et al.  Weight loss in people with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective population based analysis. BMJ 1997;314178- 179
PubMed Link to Article
White  HPieper  CSchmader  KFillenbaum  G A longitudinal analysis of weight change in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45531- 532
PubMed
Stewart  RMasaki  KXue  QL  et al.  A 32-year prospective study of change in body weight and incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Arch Neurol 2005;6255- 60
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JC The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;432412- 2414
PubMed Link to Article
Berg  LMcKeel  DW  JrMiller  JPBaty  JMorris  JC Neuropathological indices of Alzheimer's disease in demented and nondemented persons aged 80 years and older. Arch Neurol 1993;50349- 358
PubMed Link to Article
Berg  LMcKeel  DW  JrMiller  JP  et al.  Clinicopathologic studies in cognitively healthy aging and Alzheimer disease: relation of histologic markers to dementia severity, age, sex, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Arch Neurol 1998;55326- 335
PubMed Link to Article
Rubin  EHStorandt  MMiller  JP  et al.  A prospective study of cognitive function and onset of dementia in cognitively healthy elders. Arch Neurol 1998;55395- 401
PubMed Link to Article
Burke  WJMiller  JPRubin  EH  et al.  Reliability of the Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating. Arch Neurol 1988;4531- 32
PubMed Link to Article
McCulla  MMCoats  MVan Fleet  NDuchek  JGrant  EMorris  JC Reliability of clinical nurse specialists in the staging of dementia. Arch Neurol 1989;461210- 1211
PubMed Link to Article
Blessed  GTomlinson  BERoth  M The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of the elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 1968;114797- 811
PubMed Link to Article
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinicians. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12189- 198
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCMcKeel  DWFulling  KTorack  RMBerg  L Validation of clinical diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 1988;2417- 22
PubMed Link to Article
Reuben  DBSiu  AL An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;381105- 1112
PubMed
Hollingshead  AB Four Factor Index of Social Status.  New Haven, Conn: Department of Sociology, Yale University; 1975
Hixson  JEVernier  DT Restriction isotyping of human apolipoprotein E by gene amplification and cleavage with HhaI. J Lipid Res 1990;31545- 548
PubMed
American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition.  Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994
Fitzmaurice  GMLaird  NMWare  JM Applied Longitudinal Analysis.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Interscience; 2004
Laird  NMWare  JH Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics 1982;38963- 974
PubMed Link to Article
Littel  RCMilliken  GAStroup  WWWolfinger  RD SAS System for Element Models.  Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1996
Morris  JCPrice  JL Pathologic correlates of nondemented aging, mild cognitive impairment, and early-stage Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Neurosci 2001;17101- 118
PubMed Link to Article
Powlishta  KKStorandt  MMandernach  TAHogan  EGrant  EAMorris  JC Absence of effect of depression on cognitive performance in early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2004;611265- 1268
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia, sarcopenia, and aging. Nutrition 2001;17660- 663
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia, body composition, and ageing. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001;49- 13
PubMed Link to Article
Morley  JE Anorexia of aging: physiologic and pathologic. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66760- 773
PubMed
Schiffman  SSGraham  BG Taste and smell perception affect appetite and immunity in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(suppl 3)S54- S63
PubMed Link to Article
Schiffman  SS Taste and smell losses in normal aging and disease. JAMA 1997;2781357- 1362
PubMed Link to Article
Suzuki  YCritchley  HDSuckling  J  et al.  Functional magnetic resonance imaging of odor identification: the effect of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56M756- M760
PubMed Link to Article
Rezek  DL Olfactory deficits as a neurologic sign in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch Neurol 1987;441030- 1032
PubMed Link to Article
Schiffman  SSGraham  BGSattely-Miller  EAZervakis  JWelsh-Bohmer  K Taste, smell and neuropsychological performance of individuals at familial risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2002;23397- 404
PubMed Link to Article
Tabert  MHLiu  XDoty  RL  et al.  A 10-item smell identification scale related to risk for Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 2005;58155- 160
PubMed Link to Article
Suzuki  YYamamoto  SUmegaki  H  et al.  Smell identification test as an indicator for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;19727- 733
PubMed Link to Article

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 86

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
JAMAevidence.com

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
Clinical Resolution

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
Clinical Scenario