A variety of neuropsychological tests were used for the evaluation of several cognitive domains. For attention and psychomotor speed, the Test of Attentional Processes (Testbatterie zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung) alertness subtest,13 which measures the simple reaction times for visual presented stimuli and included mean reaction times, variation or stability of reaction, and difference in reaction times after stimulus announcement (phasic alertness) as the test scores, and the Test of Attentional Processes sustained attention subtest,13 which requires a simultaneous consideration of visual and auditory presented stimuli and included mean reaction times, variation or stability of reaction, number of omissions, and errors as the test scores, were used. For executive functions, the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndromes,14 which measures 6 unstructured tasks reflecting daily living situations that require role shifting, planning, problem solving, and estimation and included the sum score as the test score, and the Stroop Test,15 which measures the time to read and name color names that are printed in ink incongruous to the written color name and included the time to name the incongruent word as the test score, were used. For learning and retaining, the California Verbal Learning Test,16 a word list learning test that requires the reproduction of 16 categorized words presented over 5 trails, included subtests for free recall, recall after the presentation of a list of interfering items, delayed recall (20 minutes), and recognition from a list of 44 items, and included the total number of reproduced items during trails 1 to 5 (A1-5), number of reproduced items after the interfering condition (A6), number of reproduced items after the delay (A7), and number of hits and errors in the recognition task as the test scores, and the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised,17 the test battery that measures verbal and visual memory performance immediately and after a delay of 30 minutes and included the verbal, visual, and delayed scores as the test scores, were used. For spans, the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised, which involved reproduction of a subset of auditory presented numbers of increasing length in the same order and in the reverse order and included numbers recalled forward and backward as the test scores, and the spatial span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised, which involved replication of an increasingly long series of blocks pointing in the same order or in the reverse order and included the replication of blocks forward and backward as the test scores, were used. For intelligence, the Multiple Choice Vocabulary Test (Mehrfachwahlwortschatztest),18 which is a vocabulary test in which 1 real word has to be differentiated from 4 alternative nonsense words to estimate the premorbid level of intelligence and which included the number of correct namings as the test score, was used.