Nineteen HIV-1–positive men (15 homosexual, 3 bisexual, and 1 heterosexual) were recruited from the Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Ages ranged from 25 to 62 years (mean, 42 ± 11 years). Patients covered the entire spectrum of motor function, ranging from normal psychomotor speed to highly pathologic psychomotor slowing. Mean time span since establishment of seropositivity was 4.8 ± 4.3 years. Data on plasma viral load were available for 11 patients (below detection threshold, 5 patients; <1000 copies/mL, 1 patient; 1000-10,000 copies/mL, 1 patient; 10,000-30,000 copies/mL, 4 patients). Nine patients had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).17 Three patients had not yet received any antiretroviral treatment (no ART); 7 used only reverse transcriptase inhibitors (ie, received ART); and 9 used highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). None of the patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for HIV-1–CMC,1 ie, the AIDS dementia complex. None had evidence of HIV-1–associated myelopathy. None of the patients had any history of cerebral lymphoma or opportunistic cerebral infection. One patient had signs of HIV-1–associated polyneuropathy. All patients underwent scoring with regard to the 14 motor examination items of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Mehrfach-Wortwahl-Test, Version B (MWT-B)18 and Raven's progressive matrices19 were performed. To assess the psychopathological status, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Methodik und Documentation in der Psychiatrie (AMDP) system20 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale21 were used. Patient data were compared with those of a group of 15 healthy HIV-1–negative volunteers (10 men, 5 women; mean age, 38 ± 11 years) with no histories of any neurologic, psychiatric, or seizure disorders. Results of general physical and neurologic examinations were unremarkable. Written informed consent was obtained in accordance with guidelines of the Declaration of Human Rights, Helsinki, 1975. The study was approved by the university ethics committee. All individuals were informed that the purpose of this study was to investigate the rCMRGlc pattern during resting wakefulness. None had undergone previous PET scanning.