Column 8 of the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Account of patient's inability to speak. The top 2 lines contain the original text, the bottom 2 lines, the hieroglyphic transliteration. Egyptian, estimated 3000-2500 BC.1
Wernicke's diagram of the language areas. In the original, the label on the superior temporal gyrus was simply a, but from the context, it should have been a1. Wernicke's explanation of this figure is as follows: Let F be the frontal, O the occipital, and T the temporal end of a schematically drawn brain. C is the central fissure; around the Sylvian fissure (S) extends the first primitive convolution. Within this convolution, a1is the central end of the acoustic nerve; a, its site of entry into the medulla oblongata; b, the representation of movements governing sound production, and it is connected with the preceding through the association fibers a1b running in the cortex of the insula. From b the efferent pathways of the sound-producing motor nerves run to the oblongata and exit there. . . .6,7
Déjerine's careful anatomical work on the "Case Courrière," a patient with alexia without agraphia.9 Coronal section of the involved parieto-temporo-occipital region, at the level of the splenium of the corpus callosum. In the original, the involved area is shaded in yellow. Notice careful labeling of all anatomical structures. Labels, in the original French, are shown only for the purpose of illustrating the careful work of the author.
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