To disclose a novel mutation of the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene responsible for early-onset Alzheimer disease and to clarify genotype-phenotype correlation that should help to establish the function of this protein.
The PS1 and presenilin 2 (PS2) genes carry missense mutations in families with Alzheimer disease. The PS1 and PS2 proteins have similar structures, and all presently known mutations are in nucleotides coding for amino acids that are conserved between the 2 presenilins.
Sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PS1 gene of DNA from a pedigree with early-onset Alzheimer disease.
Sequence analysis disclosed a novel PS1 mutation in a pedigree of Japanese origin with early-onset Alzheimer disease. This mutation, which is predicted to cause a missense substitution of lysine for glutamic acid, occurred at codon 123 of PS1 that was not a conserved residue in PS2. The 2 patients of this pedigree shared an early clinical phenotype consisting of later-onset, progressive aphasia, but preserved visuospatial ability, which was indistinguishable from those of other PS1-associated Alzheimer disease cases.
These results demonstrate that a missense mutation in a region not conserved between PS1 and PS2 can cause Alzheimer disease.