0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Neuropathological Changes in Down's Syndrome Hippocampal Formation:  Effect of Age and Apolipoprotein E Genotype

Bradley T. Hyman, MD, PhD; Howard L. West, MPhil; G. William Rebeck, PhD; Florence Lai, MD; David M. A. Mann, PhD
Arch Neurol. 1995;52(4):373-378. doi:10.1001/archneur.1995.00540280059019.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background:  The neuropathological changes of Alzheimer's disease occur universally in individuals with Down's syndrome as they reach middle age and worsen with increasing age. Thus, evaluation of patients of various ages with Down's syndrome allows one to construct a life history of the development of neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease at various points in the disease process.

Methods:  We have used semiquantitative scales and quantitative computerized image analysis techniques to analyze the characteristics of neurofibrillary tangle formation and Aβ amyloid deposition in the hippocampal formation and inferior temporal gyrus in 36 individuals with Down's syndrome ranging in age from 4 to 73 years.

Results:  Neurofibrillary tangles occur in a hierarchical distribution in a circumscribed set of neuronal fields, affecting the entorhinal cortex, area CAl/subiculum, then other hippocampal subfields. Although amyloid deposition occurs more evenly in a more widespread distribution, it also accumulates over the years 30 to 50. Surprisingly, examination of the patients available older than 50 years showed no trend toward continued increased deposition of amyloid. Within this group, however, individuals who had inherited the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) ε4 genotype contained more than twice the amyloid burden of individuals who did not inherit the Apo E ε4 genotype.

Comment:  This large series of cases confirms earlier observations that had suggested early vulnerability of entorhinal cortex and CAl/subiculum for neurofibrillary tangles and a more widespread but specific topography of Aβ deposition. Moreover, it demonstrates quantitatively that the lesions increase to a certain level and then apparently reach a plateau. The level of amyloid deposition in Down's syndrome is higher than in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Inheritance of the Apo E ε4 genotype appears to be an additional (independent) risk factor for developing higher levels of amyloid accumulation.

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();