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Sir Charles Bell
Arch Neurol. 1969;21(6):662-666. doi:10.1001/archneur.1969.00480180118013.
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If an ass be thrown, and the portio dura be cut across where it emerges upon the face, before the ear, all the muscles of the face, except those of the jaws, will be paralysed. If its nostrils be confined for a few seconds, so as to make it pant and forcibly dilate the nostrils at each inspiration, and if the portio dura be now divided on one side of the head, the motion of the nostril of the same side will instantly cease, while the other nostril will continue to expand and contract in unison with the motions of the chest....

If an ass be tied and thrown, and the superior maxillary branch of the fifth nerve exposed, touching this nerve gives acute pain. When it is divided, no change takes place in the motion of the nostril; the cartilages continue to expand regularly in time with the other


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