Accepted for Publication: April 17, 2015.
Published Online: June 8, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.0993.
Study concept and design: Schlaeger, Papinutto, Green, Hauser, Henry.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Schlaeger, Papinutto, Zhu, Lobach, Bevan, Bucci, Castellano, Gelfand, Graves, Green, Jordan, Keshavan, Panara, Stern, von Büdingen, Waubant, Goodin, Cree, Henry.
Drafting of the manuscript: Schlaeger, Lobach, Henry.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Schlaeger, Papinutto, Lobach, Graves, Green, Henry.
Obtained funding: Henry.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Papinutto, Zhu, Panara, Stern, Cree, Henry.
Study supervision: Bucci, Castellano, Hauser, Henry.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gelfand has received compensation for medical legal consulting. Dr Green reported receiving personal fees from Inception Sciences and Mylan Pharmaceuticals and grants/awards from Novartis. He also reported serving on end point adjudication committees for Biogen and MedImmune. He serves on trial steering committees for Novartis and the scientific advisory board for Bionure. Dr Cree has received personal compensation for consulting from Abbvie, Biogen Idec, EMD Serono, MedImmune, Novartis, Genzyme/Sanofi, and Teva Neurosciences and has received contracted research support (including clinical trials) from Acorda, Avanir, Biogen Idec, EMD Serono, Hoffmann-La Roche, MedImmune, and Teva Neurosciences. Dr Hauser currently serves on the scientific advisory board of Symbiotix, Annexon, and Bionure. Dr Henry has received grants from Stem Cells Inc and Roche. None of these potential conflicts of interest are relevant to the current study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: We acknowledge support from research grant funding from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society; The Conrad H. Hilton Foundation; Department of Defense; National Institutes of Health grants R01 NS 026799, R01 NS049477, and K02 NS072288; National Defense Science and Engineering Fellowship; and the Nancy Davis Foundation. Dr Schlaeger has received grants from the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Society and the Gottfried and Julia Bangerter-Rhyner Foundation Switzerland. Dr Gelfand is funded by National Institutes of Health grant KL2TR000143. Dr Green reports grants/awards from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, University of California, San Francisco Clinical and Translational Science Institute, and That Man May See, as well as philanthropic support from the Rachelff Family and the Robert Dale Family.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Refujia Gomez, BS, CCRP, Caroline Ciocca, BA, Rachel Kanner, BS, Alan Evangelista, MPH, and Adam Santaniello, BS, from the Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco for help with data collection and management. They did not receive compensation.