Accepted for Publication: October 8, 2014.
Published Online: January 12, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.3638.
Study concept and design: Jalbert, Nguyen, Gerhard-Herman, Jaff, White, Seeger, Williams, Tsai, Aronow, Johnston, Brott, Setoguchi.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jalbert, Nguyen, Gerhard-Herman, Jaff, White, Rothman, Seeger, Kumamaru, Williams, Chen, Liu, Tsai, Aronow, Brott, Setoguchi.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jalbert, Setoguchi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nguyen, Gerhard-Herman, Jaff, White, Rothman, Seeger, Kumamaru, Williams, Chen, Liu, Tsai, Aronow, Johnston, Brott, Setoguchi.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Jaff reported being a noncompensated advisor to Abbott Vascular, Boston Scientific, Cordis Corporation, Covidien Vascular, and Medtronic Vascular; he also reported serving as a board member at VIVA Physicians, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit education and research consortium. Dr Seeger reported being a paid consultant to OptumInsight Epidemiology and World Health Information Science Consultants, LLC. Dr Kumamaru reported being supported by the pharmacoepidemiology program at the Harvard School of Public Health, funded by Pfizer and Asisa. Dr Setoguchi reported being supported by midcareer development award grant K02-HS017731 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services; she also reported receiving research support from Johnson & Johnson and receiving personal income for consulting from Sanofi. Dr Setoguchi has made available online a detailed listing of financial disclosures (http://www.dcri.duke.edu/about-us/conflict-of-interest/). No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This project is funded by contract HHSA290-2005-0016-I-TO8 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services, as part of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions About Effectiveness Network and by interagency agreement contract 500-2010-00001I-TO6 and carotid endarterectomy contract 500-2010-00001I TO2 from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, US Department of Health and Human Services.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The manuscript was based on a report produced under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality that was peer reviewed before it was accepted as a final report and before it was submitted for publication. Otherwise, the funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not represent policies of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or US Department of Health and Human Services.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary results from this study were presented at the 29th Annual International Conference on Pharmacoepidemiology & Therapeutic Risk Management; August 26, 2013; Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Additional Contributions: Marcel Salive, MD, MPH (National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health), Essy Mozaffari, PharmD, MPH (Sanofi), James Benenati, MD (Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute), and Peter Schneider, MD (Kaiser Permanente) contributed guidance and expertise by serving on the technical expert panel for this project. No member of the technical expert panel received compensation for his or her contributions.