Accepted for Publication: October 6, 2014.
Published Online: December 15, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.3602.
Study concept and design: Martinez-Hernandez, Dalmau.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Martinez-Hernandez, Sepulveda, Rostásy, Höftberger, Saiz, Dalmau.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rostásy, Graus, Harvey, Saiz, Dalmau.
Statistical analysis: Martinez-Hernandez, Sepulveda.
Obtained funding: Martinez-Hernandez, Dalmau.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Harvey.
Study supervision: Graus, Saiz, Dalmau.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Saiz has received compensation for consulting services and speaking from Bayer-Schering, Biogen-Idec, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. Dr Dalmau receives royalties from Athena Diagnosis for a patent for the use of Ma2 as an autoantibody test and a licensing fee from Euroimmun for a patent for the use of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor as an autoantibody test. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant CM12/00055 from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Dr Martinez-Hernandez), by grant 14158 from Jubilaeumsfonds of the Austrian Bank, by grant 101530 (Dr Dalmau) and grant 101610 (Dr Saiz) from Fundació la Marató TV3, by grant RD12/0032/0002 from Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple (Dr Saiz) by grant PI11/01780 from the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (Dr Dalmau), and by grant RO1NS077851 from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health (Dr Dalmau).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Eva Caballero, BS, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain, provided excellent technical support. The neurologists of the Spanish Group of Neuromielitis óptica and Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple provided clinical information. These contributors received no compensation for their roles. We thank all the patients for their generous contribution to research.