Accepted for Publication: October 1, 2014.
Published Online: December 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.3613.
Study concept and design: Takei.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Takahashi, Takei.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kurihara, Suzuki, Goshima, Tanaka, Takei.
Statistical analysis: Takahashi, Takei.
Obtained funding: Takahashi, Goshima, Tanaka, Takei.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kurihara, Suzuki, Goshima, Tanaka, Takei.
Study supervision: Tanaka, Takei.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Research funds were obtained from the Cosmic Corporation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants in aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology of Japan (Drs Takei, Tanaka, Goshima, and Suzuki); a grant for a Research and Development Project III of Yokohama City University, Japan (Drs Takei and Suzuki); a grant for medical research from the Japan Multiple Sclerosis Society (Dr Takahashi); and grants for medical research from the Takeda Science Foundation for Visionary Research and the Astellas Foundation for Research on Metabolic Disorders (Dr Takei).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Yoko Ino, BS, Advanced Medical Research Center, Yokohama City University, and Hisashi Hirano, PhD, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medical Life Science, for assisting with identification of LOTUS. They received no financial compensation for their contributions.