Accepted for Publication: May 2, 2014.
Published Online: September 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1455.
Study concept and design: Mata, Zabetian.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mata, Montine, Edwards, Zabetian.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Mata, Wan, Edwards.
Obtained funding: Leverenz, Trojanowski, Ritz, Factor, Quinn, Montine, Edwards, Zabetian.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mata, Leverenz, Weintraub, Trojanowski, Hurtig, Van Deerlin, Ritz, Rausch, Rhodes, Factor, Wood-Siverio, Quinn, Peterson, Espay, Revilla, Devoto, Hu, Cholerton, Wan, Montine, Edwards, Zabetian.
Study supervision: Mata, Leverenz, Weintraub, Trojanowski, Hurtig, Van Deerlin, Ritz, Rausch, Factor, Quinn, Espay, Revilla, Cholerton, Montine, Edwards, Zabetian.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Mata has received grants from the Department of Veterans Affairs, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Dr Leverenz has served as a consultant for Boehringer-Ingelheim, Citigroup, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Piramal Healthcare, Bayer, and Teva Pharmaceuticals and received grants from the American Parkinson Disease Association, Michael J. Fox Foundation, NIH, Northwest Collaborative Care, and the Jane and Lee Seidman Fund. Dr Weintraub has received funding from the NIH (from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke [NINDS]), Department of Veterans Affairs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and Michael J. Fox Foundation; has received honoraria from Teva Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck Inc, Pfizer, Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co, UCB, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly and Company, Clintrex LLC, Theravance, CHDI Foundation, and the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study; and has received licensing fees from the University of Pennsylvania for the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP) and the QUIP Rating Scale and legal proceedings from testifying in a single court case related to impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Dr Trojanowski has received funding for travel and honoraria from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd; has received speaker honoraria from Pfizer Inc; serves as an associate editor of Alzheimer's & Dementia; may accrue revenue on patents for the modified avidin-biotin technique, a method of stabilizing microtubules to treat Alzheimer disease (AD), a method of detecting abnormally phosphorylated tau, a method of screening for AD or disease associated with the accumulation of paired helical filaments, compositions and methods for producing and using homogeneous neuronal cell transplants, rat with straight filaments in its brain, compositions and methods for producing and using homogeneous neuronal cell transplants to treat neurodegenerative disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries, diagnostic methods for AD by detection of multiple messenger RNAs, methods and compositions for determining lipid peroxidation levels in oxidant stress syndromes and diseases, compositions and methods for producing and using homogenous neuronal cell transplants, a method of identifying, diagnosing, and treating α-synuclein–positive neurodegenerative disorders, mutation-specific functional impairments in distinct tau isoforms of hereditary frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome-17 genotype predicting phenotype, microtubule-stabilizing therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, and treatment of AD and related diseases with an antibody; and receives research support from the NIH (from the National Institute on Aging and from the NINDS) and from the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer Program. Dr Hurtig has received grants from the Department of Defense; is the movement disorders section editor for UpToDate, an online evidence-based resource for clinical decision making; and receives royalties for his work. Dr Van Deerlin receives research support from the NIH (from the NIA and from the NINDS). Dr Ritz received funding from the NIH, the Department of Defense, and initial funding by a pilot grant from the American Parkinson Disease Association. Dr Rausch received support from the NIH. Dr Rhodes was supported by grants from the NIH. Dr Factor has received honoraria from Scientiae for the CME program, University of Florida speaker program, Merz, Chelsea Therapeutics, and ADAMAS and grants from Ceregene, TEVA, Ipsen, Allergan, Medtronics, Michael J. Fox Foundation, and the NIH; is a section editor for Current Neurology and Neuroscience; and has received royalties from Demos and Blackwell Futura for textbooks. Dr Quinn is supported by grants from the Department of Veterans Affairs and from the NIH. Dr Chung has received a grant from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Peterson is supported by a grant from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Espay has received K23 career development award from the National Institute of Mental Health; has received grant support from CleveMed/Great Lakes Neurotechnologies and Michael J. Fox Foundation; has received personal compensation as a consultant/scientific advisory board member for Solvay (now Abbvie), Chelsea Therapeutics, TEVA, Impax, Merz, Pfizer, Solstice Neurosciences, Eli Lilly, and USWorldMeds; has received royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Cambridge; has received honoraria from Novartis, UCB, TEVA, the American Academy of Neurology, and the Movement Disorders Society; and serves as associate editor of Movement Disorders and Frontiers in Movement Disorders and on the editorial board of The European Neurological Journal. Dr Revilla has received funding for travel and honoraria from the Lundbeck speaker’s bureau. Dr Devoto has received support from the Michael J. Fox Foundation. Dr Hu has received grants from the NIH. Ms Wan is supported by grants from the NIH. Dr Montine is supported by grants from the NIH and receives personal compensation in the form of honoraria from invited scientific presentations to universities and professional societies. Dr Edwards is supported by grants from the NIH. Dr Zabetian is supported by grants from the American Parkinson Disease Association, Department of Veterans Affairs, NIH, Northwest Collaborative Care, and Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 1I01BX000531 from the Department of Veterans Affairs, grants P50 NS062684, P50 NS053488, P50 NS038367, and R01 NS065070 from the NIH, by the Consolidated Anti-Aging Foundation, and by the Jane and Lee Seidman Fund.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Jacqueline Rick, PhD, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Dora Yearout, BS, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington, and Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, provided technical assistance. We thank all participants in this study.