Accepted for Publication: May 12, 2014.
Published Online: August 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1638.
Study concept and design: Holland, Chang, Ernst, Dale.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Holland, Ernst, Curran, Buchthal, Alicata, Skranes, Johansen, Hernandez, Yamakawa, Kuperman, Dale.
Drafting of the manuscript: Holland, Chang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Holland, Dale.
Obtained funding: Chang, Ernst, Dale.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Holland, Chang, Ernst, Kuperman, Dale.
Study supervision: Holland, Chang, Ernst, Buchthal, Skranes, Dale.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Dale is a founder and holds equity in CorTechs Labs, Inc, and also serves on its Scientific Advisory Board. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by the University of California, San Diego, in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U54 NS056883), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2K24-DA16170 and RC2-DA029475), and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (G12-MD007601-26).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the children and parents who volunteered to participate in this study; our clinical research staff, Christine Cloak, PhD, Lynn Anderson, BA, and Krista Bridges, RN, and our MR technician, Eric Cunningham, BS, at John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii; and our image processing staff, Yoonho Chung, BS, and Matt Erhart, BS, at the University of California, San Diego. We are also grateful to Terry Jernigan, PhD, and Linda McEvoy, PhD, the University of California, San Diego, for invaluable discussions regarding the results and the writing of the manuscript.