Accepted for Publication: April 4, 2014.
Published Online: July 7, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.994.
Study concept and design: Kara, Rantell, Singleton, Hardy, Holton, Houlden.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kara, Kiely, Proukakis, Giffin, Love, Hehir, Rantell, Pandraud, Hernandez, Nacheva, Pittman, Nalls, Singleton, Revesz, Bhatia, Quinn, Hardy, Holton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kara, Kiely, Holton, Houlden.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kara, Rantell.
Obtained funding: Proukakis, Singleton, Revesz, Hardy, Holton, Houlden.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hehir, Rantell, Pandraud, Hernandez, Nacheva, Pittman, Nalls, Singleton.
Study supervision: Proukakis, Love, Rantell, Hernandez, Pittman, Nalls, Singleton, Revesz, Bhatia, Quinn, Hardy, Holton, Houlden.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Bhatia received funding for travel from GlaxoSmithKline, Orion Corp, Ipsen, and Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC; serves on the editorial boards of Movement Disorders and Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders; receives royalties from the publication of Oxford Specialist Handbook of Parkinson’s Disease and Other Movement Disorders (Oxford University Press, 2008); received speaker honoraria from GlaxoSmithKline, Ipsen, Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC, and Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd; received personal compensation for participation on the scientific advisory board for GlaxoSmithKline and Boehringer Ingelheim; and received research support from Ipsen and from the Halley Stewart Trust through Dystonia Society United Kingdom. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation and grant WT089698 from the Wellcome Trust/Medical Research Council Joint Call in Neurodegeneration received by the United Kingdom Parkinson’s Disease Consortium whose members are from the UCL Institute of Neurology, the University of Sheffeld, and the Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit at the University of Dundee. Dr Holton is supported by the Reta Lila Weston Institute for Neurological Studies, the Multiple System Atrophy Trust, Alzheimer’s Research United Kingdom, and Parkinson’s United Kingdom. Dr Kiely is supported by the Multiple System Atrophy Trust. Dr Bhatia received grant G-1009 from Parkinson’s United Kingdom and a grant from the Dystonia Coalition. This study was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, project ZO1 AG000949-08 from the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institute for Health Research, UCL Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the patients and their families for their help and sample donations and the Queen Square Brain Bank and the South West Dementia Brain Bank for their provision of human tissue.