The search for blood biomarkers useful in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the holy grails of the clinical neurosciences for several decades. Biomarkers are molecules that can be measured in accessible biological fluids that reflect physiological, pharmacological, or disease processes and can suggest the etiology of, susceptibility to, activity levels of, or progress of a disease. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, biomarkers fall into 3 categories, which are not mutually exclusive: prognostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic.1 Prognostic biomarkers are baseline measurements that categorize patients by degree of risk for disease progression and inform about the natural history of the disorder. Predictive biomarkers are baseline characteristics that categorize patients by their likelihood of response to a particular treatment. Finally, pharmacodynamic biomarkers are dynamic measurements that show that biological response has occurred in a patient after a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have historically been critical to progress in a broad range of clinical conditions. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances in fields as disparate as cardiology and oncology have relied on the ability to measure biomarkers that are reliable indicators of the underlying pathology.
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Neurology editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.