Accepted for Publication: August 6, 2013.
Published Online: February 17, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.4677.
Study concept and design: Kumar, Lohmann, Klein, Martemyanov, Schmidt.
Acquisition of data: Kumar, Lohmann, Masuho, Miyamoto, Ferbert, Lohnau, Kasten, Hagenah, Brüggemann, Graf, Münchau, Kostic, Sue, Domingo, Rosales, Lee, Freimann, Westenberger, Mukai, Kawarai, Kaji, Klein, Schmidt.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kumar, Masuho, Kasten, Schmidt.
Obtained funding: Kumar, Miyamoto, Sue, Mukai, Kawarai, Kaji, Klein, Martemyanov.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Masuho, Ferbert, Rosales, Kaji, Martemyanov.
Study supervision: Kumar, Lohmann, Kawarai, Klein, Martemyanov, Schmidt.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Kumar receives a scholarship from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Dr Kostic is supported by a research grant from the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (project grant 175090). Dr Sue receives grants from the Australian Brain Foundation and the NHMRC. Dr Westenberger is supported by a research grant from the Fritz Thyssen Foundation and by the Jake’s Ride for Dystonia research grant through the Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation. Dr Klein is supported by grants from the Bachmann Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson Foundation, intramural funds from the University of Luebeck, and the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant-in-aid for exploratory research and grants-in-aid from the Research Committee of Central Nervous System Degenerative Diseases from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (Dr Kaji); and by grants NS081282, DA021743, and DA026405 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Martemyanov).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the patients and family members for their participation in the study. Nevin A. Lambert, PhD, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, shared the Venus156-239-Gβ1 and Venus1-155-Gγ2 constructs. The Support Center for Advanced Medical Sciences, Tokushima University School of Medicine, permitted the use of their facilities to prepare the manuscript.