Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition of data: Schmidt, Jabusch, Altenmüller, Klein.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Schmidt, Kasten.
Obtained funding: Schmidt, Jabusch, Altenmüller, Klein.
Study supervision: Schmidt, Jabusch, Altenmüller, Klein.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Schmidt received research grants from the University of Lübeck for genetics research. Dr Jabusch is chairman and professor employed by the University of Music Carl Maria von Weber, Dresden, Germany. He is co-investigator of the research project Clinical and Molecular Genetics of Musician’s Dystonia partially described in this article and funded by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation and the Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson's Foundation Inc. He contributed to a continuing medical education course funded by Merz Pharma GmbH, Germany. Dr Altenmüller is chairman and professor employed by the University of Music and Drama, Hanover, Germany. He serves on the editorial board of the following journals: Journal of Interdisciplinary Music Studies, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Musicae Scientiae, and Music and Medicine. He receives research grants from the German Research Foundation (Al 269/5-3 and Al 269/7-3), the European Marie Curie Actions, the Lichtenberg Scholarship Program of Lower Saxony, and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. He receives royalties from the publication of the book Music, Motor Control, and the Brain, published by Oxford University Press, 2006. He received honoraria for teaching courses on the application of Botulinum-toxin A from Allergan (Botox), Ipsen Pharma (Dysport), and Desitin/Merz (Xeomin). Dr Kasten received funding from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for a 2-year postdoctoral fellowship (2004-2006), a junior research stipend for congress travel expenses (2005), a research grant from the University of Lübeck (2007), a travel grant from the Melvin Yahr Foundation (2009), and a grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG; KA3729/2-1). Dr Klein is a member of the editorial board of Neurology and has served as editor of the Continuum Issue Neurogenetics 2008 and as faculty at the Annual Meetings of the American Academy of Neurology since 2004. She received consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Centogene and honoraria for speaking from Boehringer Ingelheim and Merz Pharma. Dr Klein is the recipient of a career development award from the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation. Her work is funded by the Volkswagen Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Possehl Foundation; she has received institutional support from the University of Lübeck for genetics research.
Funding/Support: This work was partially supported by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, the Bachmann Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson Foundation, the Dystonia Coalition, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the patients and control subjects for their participation in the study.