Accepted for Publication: July 23, 2013.
Published Online: November 4, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.4498.
Study concept and design: Ottman, Marder.
Acquisition of data: Alcalay, Caccappolo, Mejia-Santana, Rosado, Orbe Reilly, Ruiz, Louis, Comella, Nance, Bressman, Scott, Tanner, Mickel, Waters, Fahn, Cote, Frucht, Ford, Rezak, Novak, Friedman, Pfeiffer, Marsh, Hiner, Payami, Molho, Factor, Nutt, Serrano, Arroyo, Pauciulo, Nichols, Clark, Marder.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Alcalay, Caccappolo, Tang, Marder.
Drafting of the manuscript: Alcalay, Caccappolo, Marder.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mejia-Santana, Tang, Rosado, Orbe Reilly, Ruiz, Louis, Comella, Nance, Bressman, Scott, Tanner, Mickel, Waters, Fahn, Cote, Frucht, Ford, Rezak, Novak, Friedman, Pfeiffer, Marsh, Hiner, Payami, Molho, Factor, Nutt, Serrano, Arroyo, Ottman, Pauciulo, Nichols, Clark, Marder.
Statistical analysis: Alcalay, Tang.
Obtained funding: Scott, Fahn, Payami, Clark, Marder.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Arroyo.
Study supervision: Marder.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Alcalay receives research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH; grant K02NS080915), the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, the Smart Foundation, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. Dr. Louis receives research support from the NIH (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [NINDS] grants R01 NS42859, R01 NS39422, R56 NS042859, and T32 NS07153-24 as principal investigator [PI]; National Institute on Aging grant 2P01 AG0027232-16 as PI, and NINDS grant R01 NS36630 as co-PI) and the Parkinson's Disease Foundation as PI. Dr Comella serves on the editorial board of Clinical Neuropharmacology and Continuum. She receives research support from NIH grants R01NS074343 and U54NS065701, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, Allergan, Ipsen Biopharmaceutical, and Merz Pharmaceutical. She receives compensation/honoraria for services as a consultant or an advisory committee member from Allergan, Impax Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals, Medtronic, Merz, and US WorldMeds. She receives royalties from Cambridge University Press, Humana Press, and Wolters Kluwer and research support from the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Dr Nance has received research funding from Medivation, Santhera, Neurosearch, Juvantia, Schwarcz, Pfizer, Neuraltus, Impax, CHDI, NINDS grants 5 U10 NS044466-05, 5 RO1 NS36630, 1RO1 NS052592-01, and 1 RO1 NS060118-01A1 as site investigator, NINDS grant NS640068-08 as site investigator/steering committee, National Human Genome Research Institute/NINDS grant 501 HG 02449-07 as site investigator, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine as site investigator. She received support for Centers of Excellence from the National Parkinson Foundation and the Huntington Disease Society of America; speaking honoraria from the American Academy of Neurology, the Huntington Disease Society of America, Medscape, and Augsburg College; and royalties from Oxford University Press (Juvenile Huntington's Disease, published in 2009). She has participated on advisory boards for Lundbeck. Her spouse has served on speaker's bureaus for Genentech and Schering-Plough. Dr Bressman serves on the advisory boards of the Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, and the Bachmann Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson's Foundation and on the Board of Directors of We Move. She has consulted for Bristol-Meyer Squibb. She has received research support from the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the NIH. She received royalty payments from Beth Israel/Mount Sinai/Athena for DYT6 testing. Dr Scott is a coinventor on a patent regarding the use of genetic data for assessing risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, licensed to ArcticDx; received speaking honoraria from CHDI; and received research support from the NIH (grants EY023164, EY023194, AI068804, NS071674, EY012118, HG000026, and AG019085), the BrightFocus Foundation, and the James and Esther King Biomedical Research Program. Dr Tanner serves on the scientific advisory boards of the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the National Spasmodic Dystonia Association. She has consulted for Adamas Pharmaceuticals, Impax Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck Pharmaceuticals, Pacific Health Research Institute (consultant for the NIH and Department of Defense [funded research]), Stanford University (consultant for the Muscular Dystrophy Association [funded research]), and SunHealth Research Institute (consultant for the Michael J. Fox Foundation [funded research]). She has received research support from the Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Brin Foundation, James and Sharron Clark, the NIH, the Parkinson’s Institute and Clinical Center, the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, the Department of Defense, Parkinson’s Unity Walk, and the Welding Products Manufacturer’s Group. Dr Waters received speaking honorarium from Teva and UCB. She receives research support from the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Dr Fahn reports consulting and advisory board membership with honoraria from Merz Pharma (January 2013) and Genervon Biotechnology (he expects to receive compensation for serving as PI of a pilot clinical trial); grants and research support from the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (no salary support); a grant from the Smart Family Foundation (December 2012); lecture honoraria from the American Academy of Neurology (April 2012), Columbia University (July 2012), and Sun Pharmaceuticals India (November 2012); and editor and author honoraria from Springer for serving as coeditor of Current Neurology and Neurosurgery Report (annual) and Elsevier for coauthorship of the book Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders. Dr Frucht has received consultation fees from Lundbeck, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Merz. Dr Rezak is on the speaker bureau of Teva, Medtronic, Novartis, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, and UCB. Dr Friedman has received speaking honorarium from Teva, General Electric, and UCB. He received research support from the Michael J. Fox Foundation, EMD Serono, Teva, Acadia, Schering-Plough, and the NIH. He has received consultation fees from Teva, Addex Pharm, UCB, Lundbeck, and Roche. He has received book royalties from Demos. Dr Pfeiffer reports receiving honoraria from CRC Press (Taylor and Francis) and Humana Press; lecture honoraria from Teva, UCB, and US WorldMeds; honoraria for consulting from UCB; and research grants and contracts from Boehringer Ingelheim, UCB, and Phytopharm. In addition, he reports legal consulting fees from Tucker Ellis & West and Thomas, Thomas & Hafer. He is the journal editor of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (Elsevier). Dr Marsh served on the advisory board of the National Parkinson Foundation and the American Parkinson’s Disease Association. She has received consultation fees from Acadia Pharmaceutical, Ovation Pharmaceutical, Merck Serono, Boehringer Ingelheim. She has received research support from the NIH, the Forest Research Institute, Eli Lilly, the Michael J Fox Foundation, and the National Parkinson Foundation. She has received book royalties from Taylor and Francis/Informa. Dr Payami has received funding from the NIH (grant NS36960). Dr Molho is supported by the Riley Family Chair in Parkinson's Disease. He has received consulting fees from US WorldMeds and Merz Pharmaceuticals. He has received research support from Merz Pharmaceuticals, Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Allergan, Prana Pharmaceuticals, Impax Pharmaceuticals, EMD Serono, NINDS grant R01 NS060118 (site investigator), and NIH grant R01 NS050324-01A1 (site investigator). Dr Factor reports receiving honoraria from Scientiae for a CME program, a University of Florida speaker program, the Current Neurology and Neuroscience section editor, and UpToDate; consulting fees from Merz, Ipsen, and Chelsea Therapeutics; grant support from Ceregene, Ipsen, EMD Serono, Allergan, Medtronics, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, and the NIH; and royalties from Demos and Blackwell Futura for textbooks. Dr Nutt reports receiving research support form the National Parkinson Foundation, the NIH, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, and Ceregene. He consults for Elan Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, ONO Pharmaceutical, SynAgile, Prexa, US WorldMed, and Ceregen. He received speaking honoraria from the American Academy of Neurology. Dr Serrano has received research funding from the Parkinson Study Group, Boehringer Ingelheim, Teva, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, and the NIH. She has received speaker honoraria in the past from Boehringer Ingelheim and Allergan. Dr Arroyo reports receiving a speaker’s honorarium from UCB. Dr Ottman serves on the scientific advisory board for and holds stock options in Trigeminal Solutions; has received funding for travel from the International League Against Epilepsy, the National Institute for Mental Health, and the Coriell Institute for Medical Research; has received speaker honoraria for nonindustry-sponsored lectures; serves as a consultant to Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC; and received research support from the NIH (grants R01 NS043472, R01 NS036319, and R03 NS065346 as PI, grant RC2 NS070344 as co-PI, and grants R01 NS036630, R01 NS039422, and R01 NS053998 as coinvestigator). Dr Nichols reports receiving support from the NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grants 5R01HL102107-04 and 5R24HL105333-02). Dr Clark receives research support from the NIH (NINDS grant R01 NS060113 as PI, NINDS grants R01 NS073872, NS36630, and 2P50NS038370-11 as co-PI, and National Institute on Aging grant 5P50AG008702 [Project 3] as PI), the Parkinson's Disease Foundation as PI, and the Michael J Fox Foundation as coinvestigator. Dr Marder served on the editorial board of Neurology; receives research support from the NIH (grant NS036630 as PI, grant 1UL1 RR024156-01 as director of Participant and Clinical Interactions Resources, and grants PO412196-G and PO412196-G as coinvestigator). She received compensation for participating on the steering committee for grant U01NS052592 from the Parkinson Disease Foundation, the Huntington's Disease Society of America, the Parkinson Study Group, CHDI, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by NIH grants NS036630 and UL1 RR024156 to Dr Marder, NIH grants NS050487 and NS060113 to Dr Clark, NIH grant K02NS080915 to Dr Alcalay, the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (to Drs Fahn, Marder, and Clark), grants P50 NS039764 and P50 NS071674 to Dr Scott, and grant NS36960 to Dr Payami.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Paul Greene, MD, Amy Colcher, MD, Dana Jennings, MD, Andrew Siderowf, MD, MSCE, and Linda Winfield, MS, for referral of participants.