Author Contributions: Drs Disanto and Ramagopalan had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Meier, Ebers, Giovannoni, and Ramagopalan. Acquisition of data: Watson and Ramagopalan. Analysis and interpretation of data: Disanto, Watson, Ebers, Giovannoni, and Ramagopalan. Drafting of the manuscript: Disanto and Ramagopalan. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Watson, Meier, Ebers, and Giovannoni. Statistical analysis: Ramagopalan. Obtained funding: Ebers, Giovannoni, and Ramagopalan. Administrative, technical, and material support: Ramagopalan. Study supervision: Meier, Ebers, and Ramagopalan.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Ebers serves on the editorial boards of the International Multiple Sclerosis Journal and Multiple Sclerosis and as section editor for BMC Medical Genetics; has received funding for travel or speaker honoraria from Bayer Schering Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, Roche, and UCB; and has served as a consultant to Biopartners, Bayer Schering Pharma, Howrey LLP, Heron Health, and Eli Lilly and Co. Dr Ebers receives research support from Bayer Schering Pharma, the Multiple Sclerosis Society of the United Kingdom, and the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada Scientific Research Foundation. Dr Giovannoni serves on scientific advisory boards for Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals; has served on the editorial board of Multiple Sclerosis; has received speaker honoraria from Bayer Schering Pharma, Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Pfizer Inc, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Sanofi-Aventis, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Genzyme Corp, Ironwood, and Novartis; has served as a consultant for Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Serono, Protein Discovery Laboratories, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, GW Pharma, Novartis, and FivePrime; and serves on the speakers bureau for Merck Serono. Dr Giovannoni has also received research support from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Novartis, UCB, Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Sanofi-Aventis, GW Pharma, and Ironwood.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by grant G0801976 from the Medical Research Council and a research fellowship from the Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla (cod 2010/B/5).
Role of the Sponsors: The study sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.