Background Case reports of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are scarce, and the natural history is unclear. To our knowledge, a fulminant presentation has not yet been described.
Objective To describe a case of fulminant SSPE in an individual with a perinatally acquired HIV infection.
Design Case report and literature review.
Setting Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India.
Patient A 17-year-old boy with a perinatally acquired HIV infection.
Results The patient presented with subacute-onset cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks with rapid deterioration of health (the patient died within 12 weeks of onset). The findings from magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography and the cerebrospinal fluid and serum measles antibody titers were suggestive of SSPE. The fulminant presentation in this case needs to be noted.
Conclusions Along with the better life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals, there may be an increase in the incidence of SSPE in this population. Fulminant SSPE may be added to the spectrum of measles-associated neurological disorders in HIV.