Accepted for Publication: March 27, 2012.
Published Online: July 9, 2012. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.1030
Author Contributions: All authors were involved in amending and finalizing the manuscript and have approved the final version of the paper; Mr Palmer is the guarantor. Study concept and design: Palmer, Bottle, Vincent, and Aylin. Acquisition of data: Palmer, Bottle, and Aylin. Analysis and interpretation of data: Palmer, Bottle, Davie, and Aylin. Drafting of the manuscript: Palmer. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Palmer, Bottle, Davie, Vincent, and Aylin. Statistical analysis: Palmer and Bottle. Obtained funding: Vincent and Aylin. Administrative, technical, and material support: Vincent and Aylin. Study supervision: Vincent and Aylin.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Audit Office and National Institute for Health Research. The Dr Foster Unit at Imperial College is funded by a grant from Dr Foster Intelligence (an independent health service research organization). The Dr Foster Unit at Imperial College is affiliated with the Imperial Centre for Patient Safety and Service Quality at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, which is funded by the National Institute of Health Research. The Department of Primary Care and Public Health at Imperial College is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre scheme and the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care scheme.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Ethical Approval: We have approval under Section 251 (formerly Section 60) granted by the National Information Governance Board for Health and Social Care (formerly the Patient Information Advisory Group). We also have approval for using these data for research from the South East Research Ethics Committee.