To study the humoral immune response directed at myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in pediatric patients with isolated and recurrent optic neuritis (ON).
Observational prospective case series.
Six pediatric hospitals in Germany and Austria.
Thirty-seven patients 18 years or younger with single or recurrent episodes of ON were recruited from 6 different hospitals.
Main Outcome Measures
Clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging findings, intrathecal IgG synthesis, and outcome were recorded. A live cell–based immunofluorescence assay was used to measure serum IgG antibodies to MOG and aquaporin 4.
A single episode of ON was observed in 10 patients, and 15 experienced 2 to 12 episodes. The acute episode of ON was part of a clinically isolated syndrome in 12 patients, of whom 8 were subsequently classified as having multiple sclerosis. High-titer serum MOG-IgG antibodies (≥1:160) were detected in 17 patients (46%). In addition, high titers of MOG-IgG antibodies were more frequently observed in 12 of the 15 patients with recurrent episodes of ON (80%; median titer, 1:640) compared with 2 of the 10 patients with monophasic ON (20%; median titer, 0) and 3 of the 12 patients with ON as part of a clinically isolated syndrome (25%; median titer, 0).
High-titer MOG-IgG antibodies are predominantly detected in pediatric patients with recurrent ON, indicating that anti–MOG-specific antibodies may exert a direct role in the pathogenesis of ON in this subgroup.