Accepted for Publication: May 27, 2011.
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Criswell and Racette. Acquisition of data: Criswell, Crippen, Moerlein, and Birke. Analysis and interpretation of data: Criswell, Perlmutter, Videen, Moerlein, Flores, Birke, and Racette. Drafting of the manuscript: Criswell. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Criswell, Perlmutter, Videen, Moerlein, Flores, Birke, and Racette. Statistical analysis: Criswell and Flores. Obtained funding: Racette. Administrative, technical, and material support: Perlmutter, Videen, Moerlein, Flores, and Birke. Study supervision: Perlmutter, Moerlein, and Racette.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Criswell has received research support from Merck (principal investigator [PI], Chiltern (subinvestigator), Teva (PI), and Medivation (PI). Dr Perlmutter serves on the scientific advisory boards of the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA), the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, the Missouri Chapter of the Dystonia Medical Research Fund, and the Greater St Louis Chapter of the APDA, and serves as an editorial board member of Neurology; has received travel expenses and/or honoraria for lectures or educational activities not sponsored by industry (University of Maryland, Toronto Western Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Movement Disorders Society, American Academy of Neurology); has received honoraria from Ceregene for travel to lecture; has received honoraria from the Parkinson Disease Study Group for grant reviews; and has received partial fellowship support for fellows from Medtronic Inc; and has received research support from Express Scripts. Ms Birke holds common share positions in Merck and in Bristol-Meyers Squibb. Dr Racette has received research support from Teva (PI), Eisai (PI), and Solvay (PI); and has received research support from Schwarz (PI), Solstice (PI), Eisai (PI), Allergan (PI), and Neurogen (PI).
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Michael J. Fox Foundation; National Institutes of Health grants R01 ES013743, K24 ES017765, KL2 RR024994, P42ES04696, 5T32NS007205-27, RO1 NS41509, RO1 NS058714, NCRR UL1 RR024992, and NS057105; the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) Advanced Research Center at Washington University; the Greater St Louis Chapter of the APDA; the McDonnell Center for Higher Brain Function; and the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation (Elliot Stein Family Fund and Jack Buck Fund for Parkinson Disease Research).