Accepted for Publication: March 23, 2011.
Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Bettencourt, Santos, Maciel, and Lima. Acquisition of data: Bettencourt, Raposo, Kay, Vasconcelos, Donis, Saraiva-Pereira, Jardim, Sequeiros, and Lima. Analysis and interpretation of data: Bettencourt, Kazachkova, Cymbron, Santos, Maciel, and Lima. Drafting of the manuscript: Bettencourt, Kazachkova, Kay, and Lima. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bettencourt, Raposo, Kazachkova, Cymbron, Santos, Vasconcelos, Maciel, Donis, Saraiva-Pereira, Jardim, Sequeiros, and Lima. Statistical analysis: Bettencourt, Kazachkova, and Santos. Obtained funding: Sequeiros and Lima. Administrative, technical, and material support: Raposo, Cymbron, Kay, Vasconcelos, Sequeiros, and Lima. Study supervision: Maciel and Lima.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant PIC/IC/83074/2007 from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) (for project Transcriptional Variation of the ATXN3 Gene as Modulator of the Clinical Heterogeneity in Machado-Joseph Disease); by M2.1.2/I/026/2008 from the Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine of the Azores (for project High Prevalence Diseases in the Azores Islands); and by postdoctoral fellowships SFRH/BPD/63121/2009 (Dr Bettencourt) and SFRH/BPD/38659/2007 (Dr Cymbron) from FCT and M3.1.3/F/004/2009 from Secretaria Regional da Ciência, Tecnologia e Equipamentos (Dr Kazachkova).
Additional Contributions: Vanessa Emmel, PhD, and health professionals assisted in sample and data collection.